Into The Abyss:
A Personal Journey into the World of Street Gangs

by Mike Carlie, Ph.D.        
Copyright
© 2002
Michael K. Carlie
Continually updated.

~ Table of Contents ~
Home | Foreword | Preface | Orientation

What I Learned | Conclusions
End Note |
Solutions
Resources
| Appendix
Site Map / Contents
| New Research

Up-To-Date Gang-Related News


Bibliography / Library for Into the Abyss

The bibliography below contains only those gang-related publications UP TO and including 2006 used in writing Into the Abyss.

2001 - to June of 2003:
You can also search a list of ALL gang-related articles published from January, 2001, to June, 2003.

July of 2003 through March of 2006:
July, 2003, through March, 2006.

Up to 2008:
For an excellent bibliography on gangs see James C. Howell's "Youth Gang Bibliography." This bibliography was compiled in 2008 and is extensive.

2008 - April, 2010:
Visit this site to explore gang-related literature published between 2008 and April of 2010.

At the end of this bibliography/library you will find links to three organizations with extensive collections of online publications dealing with the topics of gangs and juvenile delinquency.

Newest Research on Gangs: 

Administration for Children and Families, Child Maltreatment 1999, Reports From the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Children's Bureau, 2001.

AGC/United Learning, Risk Factors and Problem Behaviors, Evanston, IL., date unknown.

American Medical Association, "Violence Statistics: Facts About School Violence," American Medical Association, Washington, D.C., July 16, 2001.

Arnette, J. L., and M. C. Walsleben, Combating Fear and Restoring Safety in Schools, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., April, 1998.

Baba, Y., "Vietnamese Gangs, Cliques, and Delinquents," Journal of Gang Research, Volume 8, Number 2, Winter, 2001, pp. 1-20.

Baccaglini, W.F., Project Youth Gang-Drug Prevention: A Statewide Research Study, Renssellaer, NY, New York State Division for Youth, 1993.

Baugh, D.G., Gangs in Correctional Facilities: A National Assessment, American Correctional Association, Lanham, MD, 1993.

Beck, A. J., D. Gilliard, L. Greenfeld, C. Harlow, T. Hester, L. Jankowski, T. Snell, J. Stephan, and D. Morton, Survey of State Prison Inmates, 1991, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C. 1991.

Beck, A. J., and P.M. Harrison, Prisoners in 2000 (PDF), Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Washington, D.C., March, 2001 (document number NCJ 188207).

Best, J., Random Violence: How we talk About New Crimes and New Victims, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 1999.

Bethesda Day Treatment program, Dominic Herbst, President, P.O. Box 210, West Milton, PA, 17886, Phone: 570-568-2373, Fax: 570-568-1134, Email: staff@bfsf.org

Bilchik, S., Parents Anonymous: Strengthening Families (see "From the Administrator"), by T. Rafael, and L. Pion-Berlin, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., April, 1999.

Bilchik, S., Family Disruption and Delinquency ("From the Administrator"), by T. P. Thornberry, C.A. Smith, C. Rivera, D. Huizinga, and M. Stouthamer-Loeber, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., September, 1999.

Bilchik, S.,  Families and Schools Together: Building Relationships (see "From the Administrator", by L. McDonald, and H. E. Frey, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., November, 1999.

Bjerregard, B., and C. Smith, "Gender Differences in Gang Participation, Delinquency, and Substance Abuse," Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Volume 9, 1993, pp. 329–355.

Black, M. C., Juvenile Delinquency Probation Caseload, 1989-1998, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., September, 2001.

Blakemore, J. L., and G. M. Blakemore, "African American Street Gangs: A Quest for Identity," Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, Volume 1, Issue 2-3, pp. 203-223, 1998. From a review found in Criminal Justice Abstracts, Abstract Number 1328-30), Sage Publications, New York, NY, December, 1998, p. 598.

Bloch, H, and A. Niederhoffer, The Gang: A Study of Adolescent Behavior, Philosophical Library, NY, 1958.

Bodinger-deUriarte, C., "Membership in Violent Gangs Fed by Suspicion, Deterred through Respect," Southwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Los Alamitos, CA, March, 1993.

Bowker, L. H., and M. W. Klein, "The Etiology of Female Juvenile Delinquency and Gang membership: A Test of Psychological and Social Structural Explanations," Adolescence, Volume 18, 1983, pp. 739-751.

Brotherton, D., “'Smartness,' 'Toughness,' and 'Autonomy:' Drug use in the context of gang female delinquency," Journal of Drug Issues Volume 26, 1996, pp. 261–277.

Brown, W. B., "The Fight for Survival: African-American Gang Members and Their Families in a Segregated Society," Juvenile and Family Court Journal, Volume 49, Issue 2, Spring, 1998, pp. 1-14.

Bruner, C., L.G. Kunseh, and R.A. Knuth, What Does Research Say About Interagency Collaboration?, North Central Regional Education Laboratory, Oak Brook, IL, 1992.

Burch, J. H. II., and B. M. Chemers, A Comprehensive Response to America's Youth Gang Problem, National Youth Gang Center, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., March, 1997.

Bureau of Justice Assistance, Addressing Community Gang Problems: A Model for Problem Solving, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., August, 1999.

Bureau of Justice Assistance, Urban Street Gang Enforcement, (or PDF format) U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., January, 1997, published August, 1999.

Bureau of Justice Statistics, Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics 1999, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., 1999. (Continually up-dated version)

Bureau of Justice Statistics, Homicide Trends in the U.S.: Homicide Circumstances, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., 2001.

Bureau of Prisons, "Bureau of Prisons Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration," Federal Register, United States Department of Justice, Volume 64, Number 154, August 11, 1999, p. 43882. Available for purchase or, per change, in your local library's "Government Documents" section free of charge.

Burnett, G., and G. Walz, Gangs in Schools, G. Burnett,  ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, Digest Number 99, July 1994. To access, go to http://www.eric.ed.gov/ and conduct a key word search in parentheses for "Gangs in Schools".

Butts, J. A. and H. N. Snyder, The Youngest Delinquents: Offenders Under Age 15, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., September, 1997.

Butts, J., D. Hoffman, and J. Buck, Teen Courts in the United States: A Profile of Current Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., 1999.

California Council on Criminal Justice, Final Report, State Task Force on Gangs and Drugs, State of California, Sacramento, CA, 1989.

California Department of Corrections, CDC Facts, California Department of Corrections, Communications Office, 1515 "S" Street, Sacramento, CA, Phone: 916-445-450, 2001.

Campbell, A., "Female Participation in Gangs," as found in Gangs in America, edited by C. R. Huff, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA, 1990, pp. 163-182.

Campbell, A., Black Single Female Headed Households and Their Children's Involvement in Gangs, Unpublished thesis, California State University, Long Beach, CA, U-M-I Dissertation Services, A Bell and Howell Company, Ann Arbor, MI, 1992.

Campbell, A., "Self Definition by Rejection: The Case of Gang Girls," Social Problems, Volume 34, Number 5, 1987, pp. 451-466, Society for the Study of Social Problems, as found in Gangs and Gang Behavior, Mays, L. G., editor, Nelson-Hall Publishers, Chicago, IL, 1997, pp. 129-149.

Cantelon, S. L., Family Strengthening for High Risk Youth, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C, March, 1994.

Carlson, P.M., "Prison Interventions: Evolving Strategies to Control Security Threat Groups," Corrections Management Quarterly, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp. 10-22,  Winter 2001.

Carnegie Corporation of New York, Starting Points: Meeting the Needs of Our Youngest Children, Carnegie Corporation of New York, New York, NY, 1994.

Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado at Boulder, 439 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0439, Phone: 303- 492-8465, Fax: 303-443-3297, Email: cspv@colorado.edu

Center for Neighborhood Enterprise, Violence-Free Zone Initiatives: Models of Successful Grassroots Youth Intervention, National Center for Neighborhood Enterprise, Washington, D.C., 1999.

Chaiken, M. R., Violent Neighborhoods, Violent Kids, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., March, 2000.

Chandler, K. A., C. D. Chapman, M. R. Rand, and B. M. Taylor, Students' Reports of School Crime: 1989 and 1995, Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, National Center for Education Statistics, and U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Washington, D.C., 1998.

Chesney-Lind, M. and R. G. Shelden, Girls, Delinquency, and Juvenile Justice, Pacific Grove, CA, Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 1992.

Chesney-Lind, M., "Girls, gangs and violence: Anatomy of a backlash," Humanity and Society, Volume 17, 1993, pp. 321-344.

Chicago Crime Commission, Library acquisition: HV 6439.U52 C5 L563. Published in 1999. The Commission is located at 79 W. Monroe, Suite 605, Chicago, IL, 60603, Phone: 312-372-0101. Fax: 312-372-6286.

Chin, K., Chinese Subculture and Criminality: Non-Traditional Crime Groups in America, Greenwood, Westport, CT, 1990.

Chin, K., and J A. Fagan, "The Impact of crack on drug and crime involvement," an unpublished paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, New Orleans, LA, November, 1990.

Chung, I.J., " Developmental Trajectories of Offending among Poor and Non-Poor Children," Recent Dissertation Abstracts, University of Washington, School of Social Work, no date. (Scroll down to Chung's article.)

Citizens for Missouri's Children, No Safe Place, Kids Count Missouri, Office of Social and Economic Data Analysis, 2717 Sutton Avenue, St. Louis, MO, 63143.

Cloward, R.A., and L.E. Ohlin, Delinquency and Opportunity: A Theory of Delinquent Gangs, The Free Press, N.Y., 1960.

Cohen, A., Delinquent Boys, Free Press, New York City, NY, 1955.

Community Service Work Program, Department of Correction, Division of Community Corrections, 4703 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-4703, Phone 919-733-7974, FAX 919-715-4209, Email: vjsinfo@nccrimecontrol.org

Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Juveniles and the Death Penalty, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., November 2000.

Cotton, K., "Educating Urban Minority Youth:
Research on Effective Practices
," School Improvement Research Series, Topical Synthesis Number 4, Northwest Regional Educational Library, March, 1991.

Curry, G. D., and I. A. Spergel, "Gang Involvement and Delinquency Among Hispanic and African American Adolescent Males," Journal of Research on Crime and Delinquency, Volume 29, 1992, pp. 273-291.

Curry, G.D., and I.A., Spergel, "Gang Homicide, Delinquency, and Community," Criminology, Volume 26, Number 3, 1988, pp. 381-405, as found in Gangs and Gang Behavior, Mays, L. G., editor, Nelson-Hall Publishers, Chicago, IL, 1997, pp. 314-336.

Curry, G.D., Ball, R.A., and Fox, R.J., Gang Crime and Law Enforcement Record Keeping, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice,  Washington, D.C., 1994.

Curry, G.D., C. L. Maxson, and J.C. Howell, Youth Gang Homicides in the 1990s, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention,  U.S. Department of Justice,  Washington, D.C., March 2001.

Curry, G.D., and Decker, S. H., Confronting Gangs: Crime and Community, Roxbury Publishing Company, Los Angeles, CA, 1998.

DeCesare, D., "Keeping Faith," The Project In the Field, (Sante Fe Center for Photography, Santa Fe, New Mexico) July 8, 1999. Posted on the Internet in 1999, removed by 2004.

Decker, S. H., and J. L. Lauritsen, "Breaking the Bonds of Membership: Leaving the Gang," as found in Gangs in America, second edition, edited by C.R. Huff, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1996.

Decker, S. H., and Van Winkle, B., Life in the Gang: Family, Friends, and Violence, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 1996.

Decker, S.H., T. Bynum, and D. Weisel, "A Tale of Two Cities: Gangs as Organized Crime Groups," Justice Quarterly, Volume 15, Number 3, September, 1998.

Deschenes, E.P., and Esbensen, F., "Violence in gangs: Gender differences in perceptions and behavior," Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Volume 15, 1999, pp. 63–96.

Drug Policy Education Group, D. Campbell, Executive Director, 541 West Meadow, Fayetteville, AR ,72701, Phone: 501-839-8543, email: dpeg@mindspring.com

Dunst, C. J., and C. M. Trivette, "Methodological Considerations and Strategies for Studying the Long-Term Follow-up of Early Intervention," as found in Developmental Follow-up: Concepts, Domains and Methods, edited by S. Friedman and H. C. Haywood, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA, pp. 277-313, 1994.

Duxbury, E.B., "Correctional interventions," as found The Gang Intervention Handbook, edited by A. P. Goldstein and C.R. Huff, Research Press, Champaign, IL, pp. 427–437, 1993.

Egley, A. Jr., Highlights of the 1999 National Youth Gang Survey, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice,  Washington, D.C., November, 2000. 

Egley, A. Jr., Aline K. Major, Highlights of the 2002 National Youth Gang Survey, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., April 2004.

Egley, A. Jr., Christina E. O'Donnell, Highlights of the 2006 National Youth Gang Survey, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., July, 2008.

Ericson, R. V., editor, Crime and the Media, Aldershot, Brookfield, VT, Dartmouth, 1995.

Ericson, N., Healthy Families America, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., April/June, 2001.

Esbensen, F.A., "Evaluating G.R.E.A.T.: A School-Based Gang Intervention Program," National Institute of Justice, Washington, D.C., June, 2004.

Esbensen, F.A., and Huizinga, D., "Gangs, drugs, and delinquency in a survey of urban youth," Criminology, Volume 31, Number 4, 1993, pp. 565-589.

Esbensen, F.A., and D. W. Osgood,  "National Evaluation of G.R.E.A.T.," Research in Brief, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., 1997. (Extracted from "Promising Results from a Gang Prevention Program," a presentation for the National Association of Elementary School Principals, San Antonio, TX, April 14, 1997.)

Esbensen, F.A., and T. L. Winfree, "Race and Gender Differences Between Gang and Non-Gang Youth: Results from a Multi-Site Survey," Justice Quarterly, Volume 15, Number 3, pp. 505-526, 1998.

Esbensen, F.A., E.P. Deschenes, and T. L. Winfree, "Differences Between Gang Girls and Gang Boys: Results from a Multi-Site Study," Youth and Society, Volume 31, Number 1, pp. 27-53, 1999, as reviewed in Criminal Justice Abstracts, Abstract Number 1360-31, Sage Publications, New York, NY, December, 1999, pp. 628-629.

Esbensen, F. A., Preventing Adolescent Gang Involvement, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., September, 2000.

Esbensen, F. A., National Evaluation of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program, U.S. Dept of Justice, National Institute of Justice, Washington, D.C., November, 2000.

Etter, G. W., Sr., "Common Characteristics of Gangs: Examining the Cultures of the New Urban Tribes," Journal of Gang Research, as found in Volume 5, Number, 2, Criminal Justice Abstracts, p. 261, 1998.

Evans, W.P., C. Fitzgerald, D. Weigel, and S. Chvilicek, "Are Rural Gang Members Similar to Their Urban Peers?," Youth and Society, Volume 30, Number 3, 1999, pp. 267-282, as reviewed in Criminal Justice Abstracts, Abstract Number 0535-31, June, 1999, p. 244.

Executive office of Weed and Seed, 810 7th Street, NW.,Washington, DC 20531, Phone 202-616-1152.

Fagan, J. E., "The social organization of drug use and drug dealing among urban gangs," Criminology, Volume 27, 1989, pp. 633-669.

Fagan, J. E., "Social processes of delinquency and drug use among urban gangs," as found in Gangs in America, edited by C.R. Huff, Newbury Park, CA, Sage Publications, pp. 183-219, 1990.

Fagan, J. E., and K. Chin, "Violence as regulation and social control in the distribution of crack," as found in Drugs and Violence: Causes, Correlates, and Consequences, edited by M. De La Rosa, E. Y. Lambert, and B. Gropper, NIDA Research Monograph 103, Rockville, MD, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Drug Abuse, pp. 8-43, 1990.

Fagan, J. E., Gangs, Drugs, and Neighborhood Change," as found in Gangs in America, 2nd edition, edited by C.R. Huff, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA, 1996, pp. 39-74.

Fagan, P., "Effective Search and Seizure," as found on the Internet site of C. Greek's Criminal Justice Links, 1997.

Fanning, D., "Letter from David Fanning, FRONTLINE Executive Producer," Frontline, Public Broadcasting Service, Online, 1995.

Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reports Press Release, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Washington, D.C., May 15, 2001.

Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health, "Volume VI: Building Collaboration in Systems of Care," Systems of Care: Promising Practices in Children's Mental Health, Federation of Families for Children's Mental Health, Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, Washington, D.C., 1998.

Fejes-Mendoza, K., D. Miller, and R. Eppler, "Portraits in Dysfunction: Criminal, Educational, and Family Profiles of Juvenile Female Offenders," Education and Treatment of Children, Volume 18, Number 3, August, 1995, pp. 309-321.

Ferrell, J., and N. Websdale, editors., Making trouble: cultural constructions of crime, deviance, and control, Aldine de Gruyter, New York, 1999.

Finkelhor, D., and R. Ormrod, Characteristics of Crime Against Juveniles, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., 2000.

Finkelhor, D., and R. Ormrod, Homicides of Children and Youth, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., 2001.

Finn, P., and K. M. Healey, Preventing Gang- and Drug-Related Witness Intimidation, National Institute of Justice Issues and Practices Report, Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, 1996.

Fleisher, M.S., Beggars and Thieves: Lives of Urban Street Criminals, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI., 1995.

Fleisher, M.S., and S. H. Decker, "Overview of the Challenge of Prison Gangs," Corrections Management Quarterly, Volume 5 Issue 1, pp. 1-9, Winter, 2001.

Fleisher, M.S., and S. H. Decker, "Going Home, Staying Home: Integrating Prison Gang Members Into the Community,"  Corrections Management Quarterly, Volume 5 Issue 1,  pp. 65-77, Winter, 2001.

Florida Department of Corrections, "Community Supervision: CPO's," 1999-00 Annual Report, 2001.

Florida Department of Corrections, Frequently Asked Questions: How much does it cost to incarcerate an inmate for a year?, April, 2001.

Fong, R.S., R.E Vogel, and S. Buentello, "Blood-In, Blood-Out: The Rationale Behind Defecting From Prison Gangs," Journal of Gang Research, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp. 45-51, Summer, 1995.

Fox, J.A., and S. A. Newman, "After-School Crime or After-School Programs: Tuning in to the Prime Time for Violent Juvenile Crime and Implication for National Policy," Fight Crime: Invest in Kids, 1997

Freeh, L., A Report to the American People on the Work of the FBI 1993-1998, United States Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, D.C., on-line summer, 2001, no date given. No longer online as of January, 2004. Old URL: http://www.fbi.gov/publications/5-year/1993-98/report1.htm

Friedman, C. J., F. Mann, and A. S. Friedman, "A Profile of Juvenile Street Gang Members," Adolescence, Volume 10, 1975, pp. 563-607.

Gabriel, A., Gangs and Degrees in Prison, on the Internet summer, 2001, as posted by Ethics of Development in a Global Environment (EDGE), 26 July, 1996. Not on the Internet as of April, 2005.

Gaes, Gerald G., Susan Wallace, Evan Gilman, et. al., "The Influence of Prison Gang Affiliation on Violence and Other Prison Misconduct," Prison Journal, Volume 82 (3), pp. 359-385.

Gang Crime Prevention Center,  The Governor's Commission on Gangs Final Report (http://www.gcpc.state.il.us/about_gcpc/final_report/index.html), "Chapter 5: Law Enforcement (http://www.gcpc.state.il.us/reports/gcog/chptr5.htm)," Gang Crime Prevention Center, Chicago, IL, 1999. On the Internet summer, 2001, no longer on the Internet January, 2004.

Garbarino, J., and J. Eckenrode, Understanding Abusive Families: An Ecological Approach to Theory and Practice, Jossey-Bass Publishers, New York, NY, 1997.

Garbarino, J., Lost Boys: Why Our Sons Turn Violent and How We Can Save Them, Free Press, NY, 1999.

Gardner, S., Street Gangs in America, Franklin Watts, New York, NY, 1992.

Garry, E. M., Truancy: First Step to a Lifetime of Problems, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Washington, D.C., October, 1996.

Glick, B., "In New York: Governor's task force tackles growing juvenile gang problem," Corrections Today, Volume 54, 1992, 92-97.

Glueck, S.  and E. T. Glueck, Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1950.

Goldstein, A. P., "Interpersonal skills training interventions," as found in The Gang Intervention Handbook, edited by A. P. Goldstein and C.R. Huff, Research Press, Champaign, IL, pp. 87–157, 1993.

Goldstein, A. P., and B. Glick, The Prosocial Gang: Implementing Aggression Replacement Training, Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, 1994.

Goldstein, A. P., B. Glick, and J.C. Gibbs, Aggression Replacement Training: A Comprehensive Intervention for Aggressive Youth, Research Press, Champaign, IL, 1998.

Gordon, R.," Criminal Business Organizations, Street Gangs and 'Wanna-be' Groups: a Vancouver Perspective," Canadian Journal of Criminology, Volume 42, Number 1, pp. 39-60, 2000, as reviewed in Criminal Justice Abstracts, Abstract Number 0452-32, June, 2000, p. 220.

Gordon, S., "Poverty and Social Exclusion in Mexico," Instituto de Investigaciones Sociales, UNAM, México, 1997.

Gramckow, H. P., and E. Tompkins, Enabling Prosecutors To Address Drug, Gang, and Youth Violence, Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grant Program Bulletin, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., December, 1999. 

Grant, D., "Davidson: Ohio House Eying Gang Legislation,"  The Courier News: Electronic Edition, Findlay Publishing Company, Findlay, OH, 1997.

Greek, C., "The Ecological Approach and Social Disorganization," online at Florida State University, September 14, 1999.

Grennan, S., M.T. Britz, J. Rush, and T. Barker, Gangs: An International Approach, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2000.

Greenwood, P.W., "Responding to Juvenile Crime: Lessons Learned," The Future of Children, Volume 6, Number 3, Winter, 1996, pp. 75-85.

Grunbaum, J.A., Laura K., S. A. Kinchen, J. G. Ross, V. R. Gowda, J. L. Collins, and L. Kolbe, "Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance -- National Alternative High School Youth Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 1998," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C., 1999.

Hagedorn, J., "Confronting Stereotypes in the Information Age: Gang Resources Room," Gang Research On-Line, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, no date. (Retitled "Top Ten Stereotypes of Gangs....And What Research has to say about them.")

Hagedorn, J., People and Folks, 1st ed., Lakeview Press, Chicago, IL, 1988.

Hagedorn, J., People and Folks. 2d ed. Lakeview Press, Chicago, IL, 1998.

Hagedorn, J., and Devitt, M., "Fighting females: The Social Construction of the Female Gang," as found in Female Gangs in America, edited by M. Chesney-Lind and J. Hagedorn, Lakeview Press, Chicago, IL, 1999.

Harrell, A., S. Cavanagh, and S. Sridharan, Evaluation of the Children at Risk Program: Results 1 Year After the End of the Program, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., November, 1999.

Hawkins, J.D., R. F. Catalano, and J. Y. Miller, "Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Other Drug Problems in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Implications for Substance Abuse Prevention," Psychological Bulletin, Volume 112, 1992, pp. 64-105.

Henderson, E., S. J. Kunitz, J. E. Levy, "The origins of Navajo youth gangs," American Indian Culture and Research Journal, Volume 23, Number 3, pp. 243-264, 1999, as reviewed in Criminal Justice Abstracts, Abstract Number 0945-32, September, 2000, p. 455.

Hollin, C.R., "Advances in the Psychological Treatment of Delinquent Behaviour," Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, Volume 3, Number 3, pp.142-157, 1993.

Holmes, S.R., and S. J. Brandenburg-Ayres, "Bullying Behavior in School: a Predictor of Later Gang Involvement," Journal of Gang Research, Volume 5, Number 2, pp. 1-6, 1998, as reviewed in Criminal Justice Abstracts, Abstract Number 0578-31, June, 1999, p. 262.

Horowitz, R., Honor and the American Dream: Culture and Identity in a Chicano Community, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ, 1983.

Howell, J.C., Fact Sheet #2, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., April, 1994.

Howell, J.C., Youth Gangs: An Overview, Bulletin, Washington, DC, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., 1998.

Howell, J.C., "Promising programs for youth gang violence prevention and intervention," as found in Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders: Risk Factors and Successful Interventions, edited by R. Loeber and D. P. Farrington, Sage Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 284-312, 1998.

Howell, J.C., Arlen Egley, Jr, and Debra K. Gleason, Modern Day Youth Gangs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., June, 2002.

Howell, J.C., Youth Gang Programs and Strategies, National Youth Gang Center, Institute for Intergovernmental Research, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., August, 2000.

Howell, J. C., Preventing and Reducing Juvenile Delinquency: A Comprehensive Framework. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2003.

Howell, J.C., and S.H. Decker, "The Youth Gang, Drugs, and Violence Connection," Bulletin, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., 1999.

Howell, J.C., and A. Egley, Jr., Gangs in Small Towns and Rural Counties, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., June, 2005.

Howell, J.C., and J.P. Lynch, Youth Gangs in Schools, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., August, 2000.

Huff, R. C., Comparing the Criminal Behavior of Youth Gangs and At-Risk Youth, National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., Washington, D.C., 1998.

Huff, C. Ronald, "Youth Violence: Prevention, Intervention, and Social Policy," as found in American Youth Gangs at the Millennium, edited by Finn-Aage Esbensen, Stephen G. Tibbetts, and Larry Gaines, Waveland Press, Long Grove, IL., 2004.

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Spergel, I.A., D. Curry, R. Chance, C. Kane, R. Ross, A. Alexander, E. Simons, and S. Oh, Gang Suppression and Intervention: Problem and Response, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., October, 1994. 

Spergel, I.A., R. Chance, K. Ehrensaft, T. Regulus, C. Kane, R. Laseter, A. Alexander, and S. Oh, Gang Suppression and Intervention: Community Models - Research Summary, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., October, 1994. 

Spergel, I.A., and C. Kane, Community-Based Youth Agency Model, draft, National Youth Gang Suppression and Intervention Program School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, September, 1990.

Spergel, I.A., G. D. Curry, R. Chance, C. Kane, R. E. Ross, A. Alexander, P. Rodriguez, D. Seed, E. Simmons, and S. Oh, Youth Gangs: Problem and Response National Youth Gang Suppression and Intervention Program, School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, October, 1991.

Spergel, I. A., Community Mobilization, National Youth Gang Suppression and Intervention Program, Technical Assistance Manual, School of Social Service Administration in cooperation with the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S., Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., 1991 and January, 1992.  

Spergel, I. A., and A. Alexander, A School-Based Model, National Youth Gang Suppression and Intervention Program, School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 1993.

Spergel, I A., and S.F. Grossman, "The Little Village Project: a community approach to the gang problem," Social Work, Volume 42, Number 5, 1997, pp. 456-470 as reviewed in Criminal Justice Abstracts, Abstract 0100-30, March, 1998, pp. 39-40.)

Spergel, I.A., S.F. Grossman, and K. M. Wa, Evaluation of the Little Village Gang Violence Reduction Project: The First Three Years: Executive Summary, U.S. Dept of Justice, Bureau of Justice Assistance, Washington, D.C., 1998. (To find this quote, do a keyword search for the title of the article.)

Starbuck, David, James C. Howell, and Donna J. Lindquist, "Hybrid and Other Modern Gangs," Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Washington, D.C., December 2001.

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Stone, S.S., "Risk Factors Associated with Gang Joining Among Youth," Journal of Gang Research, Volume 6, Number 2, 1999, pp. 1-18, as reviewed in Criminal Justice Abstracts, Abstract Number 0587-31, June, 1999, p. 263.

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Surette, R.C., Media, Crime, and Criminal Justice: Images and Realities, second edition, West/Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, 1998.

Surette, R.C., "V: Summary and Conclusions," Dr. Ray Surette's Crime and the Media Document Reserve, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, no date.

Taft, D.R., "Influence of the General Culture on Crime," Federal Probation, Volume 30, 1966, pp. 16-23.

Taylor, C.S., Dangerous Society, Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, MI, 1989.

Taylor, C., Girls, Gangs, Women and Drugs, Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, MI, 1993.

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Thornberry, T. P., and J. H. Burch, II, Gang Members and Delinquent Behavior, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., June, 1997.

Thornberry, T.P., E. H. Wei, M. Stouthamer-Loeber, and J. Van Dyke, "Teenage Fatherhood and Delinquent Behavior," Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice, Washington, D.C., January 2000.

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University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Former Gang Member Works with Violence-Prevention Program in Springfield (found summer, 2001, removed from the web by January, 2004), News Bureau, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, Jim Barlow, Life Sciences Editor, August 1, 1996.

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Venkatesh, S.A., "Gender and outlaw capitalism: A historical account of the Black Sisters United 'girl gang,'” Signs, Volume 23, 1998, pp. 683-709.

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Additional Resources: Although many publications were used in writing Into the Abyss, there are many that weren't. For access to information on gangs and the general topic of juvenile delinquency, visit the following sites:

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Institute for Intergovernmental Research
As you scroll down the page you will see the categories into which the Institute has placed their materials.

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The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) (Conduct a keyword search for "Gang")
The OJJDP aggressively pursues new knowledge about all forms of juvenile delinquency in the United States and funds many studies. The research findings are found in many of their publications.

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The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS)
The NCJRS is a depository for thousands of publications. The page to which you will be taken when you click above is a listing of material available on gangs only. If you look along the left margin of the page you will find other categories of publications which you may find of interest.

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National Youth Gang Center
The purpose of the NYGC is to expand and maintain the body of critical knowledge about youth gangs and effective responses to them. The Center assists state and local jurisdictions in the collection, analysis, and exchange of information on gang-related demographics, legislation, literature, research, and promising program strategies, and coordinates activities of the OJJDP Youth Gang Consortium—a group of federal agencies, gang program representatives, and other service providers. It also provides technical assistance to two OJJDP Programs: Rural Gang Initiative and Gang-Free Schools and Communities Initiative.

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Publishers and Agencies to Contact for Publications on Youth Violence / Gangs

© 2002 Michael K. Carlie
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the author and copyright holder - Michael K. Carlie.