Into The Abyss:
A Personal Journey into the World of Street Gangs

by Mike Carlie, Ph.D.        
Copyright
© 2002
Michael K. Carlie
Continually updated.

~ Table of Contents ~
Home | Foreword | Preface | Orientation

What I Learned | Conclusions
End Note |
Solutions
Resources
| Appendix
Site Map / Contents
| New Research

Up-To-Date Gang-Related News


Chapter 26: 
Web-Based Materials on Reducing Gang Activity,
Youth Violence and Crime Prevention Programs

NOTE: You'll need Adobe Acrobat Reader to open some of the documents linked below. It's free and takes only seconds to load. Click on the Acrobat Reader icon to your right and follow the instructions.

Findings/solutions to the gang problem as revealed at the June, 2005, National Youth Gang Symposium.

Many of the sites described below are to model prevention and intervention programs, others offer information and materials useful for reducing gang activity, youth violence, and delinquency in a neighborhood or community. Email contact can be made with most of the sites linked to this page meaning additional information may be obtained.

Guns, Gangs, and Violent Youth

The National Gang Center

A well-spring of information about gangs with links to all kinds of useful and current information.

"Designing Out" Gang Homicides and Street Assaults

The use of a deceptively simple tactic, traffic barriers, to block automobile access to streets as a way of reducing gang violence. The tactic was used in a crime-plagued area of Los Angeles that had experienced the city's highest level of drive-by shootings, gang homicides, and street assaults.

Effective Alternatives to Incarceration: This compendium of successful community-based programs should prove a valuable tool for juvenile justice professionals seeking appropriate prevention and treatment programs in order to deter future delinquency. 

The programs reviewed include Academic, Education, Behavior Management, Community Service, Control / Monitoring, Crisis Intervention, Education/Employment, Individual / Family / Group / Counseling, Intensive Probation, Mediation, Mentoring, Milieu Management, Outdoor Activity, Reality Therapy, Recreation / Fitness, Referrals, Sex Offender Treatment, Shoplifting Awareness, Skill Development, Special Education, Substance Abuse Treatment, Therapeutic Milieu treatment, Use of Speakers, and Vocational Training.

Gun Use by Male Juveniles: Research and Prevention
(July 2001)

Illegal gun ownership and use among juveniles and gang members  are the focus of public concern and of this Bulletin. Efforts to reduce the illegal carrying of guns by youth and juvenile gun violence are described, in particular the Boston Gun Initiative (Operation Cease Fire), the Office of Community Oriented Policing Services’ Youth Firearms Violence Initiative, and OJJDP’s Partnerships To Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence Program.

Reducing Gun Violence: The Boston Gun Project's Operation

The Boston Gun Project Working Group began meeting in January 1995. By the fall of that year, the Project's basic problem assessment had been completed and the elements of what is now known as the Operation Ceasefire intervention mapped out; implementation began in early 1996. The two main elements of Ceasefire were a direct law enforcement attack on illicit firearms traffickers supplying youths with guns and an attempt to generate a strong deterrent to gang violence. You can learn about other Promising Strategies to Reduce Gun Violence.

Prevention, Intervention, and Suppression Efforts

The National Gang Center

A well-spring of information about gangs with links to all kinds of useful and current information.

150 Tested Strategies to Prevent Crimes in Small Cities, Counties, and Rural Communities 

This book, one of the few materials linked to this page which is not free, is a resource for law enforcement, city and county government officials, school systems, the faith community, social services, and business leaders in small communities who are searching for innovative ways to prevent crime even as their communities grow and change.

A Community Comparison of Youth Gang Prevention Strategies

This paper discusses how two small Midwestern cities responded to the emergence of youth gangs and how a local university became a community resource in addressing the problem.

A World of Prevention

See what the State of Texas has done in order to address many of the forces which cause gangs to form (i.e., abuse, neglect, substance abuse) and some youths to join them. Does your community or state provide similar assistance?

Addressing Community Gang Problems: A Model for Problem Solving 
(August 1999)

The model described in this 1999 document can assist local communities in addressing gang problems by focusing on a comprehensive strategy for preventing and controlling street-gang drug trafficking and related violent crime with components ranging from prevention to suppression. Police, other law enforcement agencies, and numerous public and private organizations can implement this prototype.

Addressing Community Gang Problems: A Practical Guide
(August 1999)

This publication provides guidelines for agencies and community groups to develop individualized responses to local gang problems. This practical manual provides a foundation for understanding the diverse nature of gangs, the problems they pose and the harm they cause, and the two analytical models for addressing gang-related problems.

An OJJDP Report on Delinquency and Gangs
(May, 2001)

This is a summary of various studies undertaken by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) concerning very young offenders and the causes of offending. It also provides a review of some of the latest research related to solving the gang situation.

Best Practices of Youth Violence

Best Practices is the first of its kind to look at the effectiveness of specific violence prevention practices in four key areas: parents and families; home visiting; social and conflict resolution skills; and mentoring. These programs are drawn from real-world experiences of professionals and advocates who have successfully worked to prevent violence among children and adolescents.

Boys and Girls Clubs of America

In every community, boys and girls are left to find their own recreation and companionship in the streets. An increasing number of children are at home with no adult care or supervision. Young people need to know that someone cares about them. Boys & Girls Clubs offer programs and services promote and enhance the development of boys and girls by instilling a sense of competence, usefulness, belonging and influence.

Building Effective Community Partnerships

This forty-page, online booklet was prepared by the Institute for Educational Leadership for the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. It not only suggests ways in which effective community partnerships can be built, it provides examples of them (including Safe Futures and other programs for at-risk and high-risk youth).

California Mentor Foundation (of interest to anyone interested in mentoring)

The California Mentor Foundation (CMF) is not only supporting quality mentoring in California, it is actively supporting other states' efforts to launch mentor initiatives. The CMF was created to invite and support all California residents to join the mentoring movement. In partnership with the California Mentor Initiative the CMF has succeeded in achieving the first five year goal of recruiting a quarter of a million new mentors. Our second five year goal is to recruit one million new mentors.

Camp Fire USA

Camp Fire USA is one of the nation's leading not-for-profit youth development organizations, serving over 650,000 participants annually. Camp Fire USA, with national headquarters in Kansas City, Mo., provides all-inclusive, coeducational programs in hundreds of communities across the United States.

Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence (CSPV)

CSPV has a threefold mission. First, the Information House serves to collect research literature and resources on the causes and prevention of violence and provides direct information services to the public by offering topical searches on customized databases. Second, CSPV offers technical assistance for the evaluation and development of violence prevention programs. Third, CSPV maintains a basic research component through data analysis and other projects on the causes of violence and the effectiveness of prevention and intervention programs.

Child Delinquency: Early Intervention and Prevention

This "report draws on hundreds of studies to describe the developmental course of child delinquency and delineate key risk and protective factors. It also identifies effective and promising prevention and intervention programs that help reduce the incidence of delinquency while offering significant cost savings to society."

Community-Based Youth Agency Model

Irving Spergel, one of the nation's premier gang experts, proposes a six-fold mission for youth agencies intending to serve gang youth: 1) socialization, 2) education, 3) family support, 4) training and employment, 5) social control, and 6) community mobilization and agency coordination. 

Community Mobilization: Technical Assistance Manual

The purpose of this manual, only one in a series of manuals, is to present detailed steps for the control and reduction of youth gang crime, especially gang- motivated violence. The manual seeks to provide governmental authorities, criminal justice organizations, social agencies, and community groups with strategies that encourage gang-prone and gang-involved youth to terminate criminal activity and participate in legitimate social, academic, and employment pursuits.

Community Tool Box

This is the web site created and maintained by the University of Kansas Work Group on Health Promotion and Community Development in Lawrence, KS, and AHEC/Community Partners in Amherst, Massachusetts. The site has been on line since 1995, and it continues to grow on a weekly basis.

Currently, the core of the Tool Box is the "toolkits." These how-to sections use simple, friendly language to explain how to do the different tasks necessary for community health and development. For instance, there are sections on leadership, strategic planning, community assessment, advocacy, grant writing, and evaluation to give just a few examples.

Connect for Kids

Gang formation was explained in Into the Abyss, in part, as a result of child abuse and neglect, poverty, the media, and lack of parental involvement. The web page to which you will be taken here provides access to useful and practical information on how to alleviate some of these causes.

Cultural Explanations for Vietnamese Youth Involvement in Street Gangs

This article concerns itself with how to prevent Vietnamese youth involvement in gangs. Suggestions as to how to accomplish this are reviewed.

Developing a Gang Prevention Program

This report describes the first operating year of Project Support, a 3-year gang/drug prevention program aimed at elementary students in six inner city schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District. The project involves the implementation of nine strategies described in the research literature as being effective in drug/gang prevention.

The ERIC Clearinghouse on "Youth Gangs"

The ERIC Clearinghouse is part of the Educational Resource Information Center, an excellent source of all kinds of information. In this case, the site is about gangs and sometimes has featured articles on solutions to gang-related problems. Type in the keywords "youth gangs" at http://www.eric.ed.gov

Fight Crime: Invest in Kids

Fight Crime: Invest in Kids is a bipartisan, nonprofit anti-crime organization led by police chiefs, sheriffs, prosecutors, victims of violence and leaders of police officer associations. The mission of the organization is to take a hard-nosed, skeptical look at the research about what really works––and what doesn’t- work-––to keep kids from becoming criminals. We then put that information in the hands of policy-makers and the public. Among the strategies proven to be effective are school readiness and early childhood development programs, good schools, after-school programs and prevention of child abuse, as well as programs that nip delinquency in the bud by getting troubled kids back on track.

Fort Worth's (TX) Program, A Gang Intervention Program Sponsored by the Boys and Girls Clubs of America [scroll down the site to the two Programs described below]
(March, 1997)

This Gang Intervention Program is one of many gang reduction projects sponsored by the Boys and Girls Clubs of America and one which could be used in your community. It is directed at youth between the ages of 12-21 who are involved in gang activity. 

On the same page you can scroll down to "The Little Village Gang Violence Reduction Project," a Chicago-based program which you may wish to explore.

Gangs: A Handbook for Teachers and Counselors Working with Immigrant Students.

This handbook provides information about gangs for education professionals working with immigrants. As the introduction makes clear, gangs are one of the many problems that newly arrived immigrants face in their neighborhoods and at school in the United States. Following the introduction, the first section describes the types of gangs including social gangs, delinquent gangs, and violent gangs.

The second section explains gang ethnicity for the following groups: (1) Latino gangs; (2) Black gangs; (3) predominantly White gangs; and (4) Asian gangs. The third section lists and discusses reasons for gang membership, which include identity, protection, fellowship, and intimidation. A general profile of gang-related youth lists family, personal, community, and school related indicators.

Examples of gang activities are described, including drive-by-shootings, graffiti, robbery and aggravated assault, and drug use. A chart that is designed to show youth the long-term negative educational and life consequences of gang membership is presented. Also listed are ways teachers can help, gang slang with "translation," common gang hand-signs, and selected community resources.

Gangs in Schools

"Despite their high profile in the media, relatively few young people join gangs; even in highly impacted areas, the degree of participation has rarely exceeded 10 percent. In addition, it has been reported that less than 2 percent of all juvenile crime is gang-related.

"Such low numbers, however, may camouflage the impact that the presence of gangs has on a school. For one thing, they play a significant role in the widespread increase of violence in the schools; indeed, school violence has steadily increased since a 1978 National Institute of Education study, Violent Schools-Safe Schools, found that school-aged children were at a higher risk of suffering from violence in school than anywhere else."

Gangs in Schools: Signs, Symbols, and Solutions.

The first part of this book describes juvenile gangs in schools and provides information to help recognize gang presence. The second part focuses on effective interventions to deal with the gang problem. An introduction describes the history and current status of youth gangs in the United States to set the stage for the subsequent exploration of gang characteristics.

Chapter 1, "District, School, and Classroom Characteristics," describes gang membership-promoting and membership-inhibiting characteristics of schools and suggests ways to enhance factors that discourage gang membership. Chapter 2, "Signs and Symbols," describes and illustrates signifiers of gang membership.

In chapter 3, "Becoming a Gang Member," the process of joining a gang and some of the reasons adolescents and young adults join gangs are described. Chapter 4, "Ethnic Gangs," reviews the formation of gangs based on ethnicity and highlights the role of the school in educating potential gang members. Chapter 5, "Gang Violence," outlines the nature and sources of gang violence and its diversity of expression and suggests its impact on society at large. Chapter 6 begins the discussion of effective intervention by considering "Desirable Program Characteristics."

In chapter 7, "Controlling the School Environment," school responses to the gang presence, including facilities modification and security practices, are discussed. Chapter 8, "In-School and Community Enrichment Solutions," focuses on enrichment as a supplement to control.

The concluding chapter notes that the gang situation in the United States is not likely to improve without concerted efforts on the parts of schools and communities.

Gang Membership, Delinquent Peers, and Delinquent Behavior

This useful document presents the results of programs conducted in various cities which attempted to reduce gang activity. One of the focuses of attention was risk- and protective factors.

Gang Outreach

Gang Outreach is a faith-based, award winning, multi-racial, multi-cultural gang prevention and intervention program in Lake County, Illinois, providing services designed to positively influence the lives of at-risk youth in four areas: Developmentally, Emotionally, Socially and Spiritually.

Gang Problems and Gang Programs in a National Sample of Schools

This study describes students' involvement with gangs, characteristics of students who are involved with gangs, and the extent and correlates of gang problems in schools. It also describes what and how much is being done in schools to prevent or reduce gang-related problems and how to assess such prevention and intervention efforts.

Gang Resistance Education and Training Program (G.R.E.A.T.)

The G.R.E.A.T. program is taught by specially trained law enforcement personnel to students in the third through sixth grades and is a nationwide effort to use education to discourage youth from participating in gang activity. You can visit the sites of a few of the cities which have a G.R.E.A.T. program in place.

GangStyle.com

Online help for gang members who'd like to get out of the gang life. Explore the life stories of others who have successfully left the gang life.

Gang Suppression and Intervention: Community Models 
(October, 1994)

This is the first comprehensive national survey of organized agency and community group responses to gang problems in the U.S. It outlines a comprehensive gang prevention and intervention model based upon the researchers' national assessment.

The companion booklet for the document above is entitled "Implementing the OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model." The OJJDP (or "Spergel") Model includes five strategies for dealing with gang-involved youth and their communities. These strategies are: 

(1) mobilizing community leaders and residents to plan, strengthen, or create new opportunities or linkages to existing organizations for gang-involved and at-risk youth; 

(2) using outreach workers to engage gang-involved youth; 

(3) providing and facilitating access to academic, economic, and social opportunities; 

(4) conducting gang suppression activities and holding gang-involved youth accountable; and 

(5) facilitating organizational change and development to help community agencies better address gang problems through a team "problem-solving" approach that is consistent with the philosophy of community oriented policing.

Gang Suppression and Intervention: Problem and Response  
(October 1994)

This report, used in several different Chapters in Into the Abyss, summarizes a variety of reports and reviews community and organizational responses to gangs and examines "promising approaches for combating the gang problem."

Getting Out of a Gang

Here's a good read for someone thinking about getting out of the gang with which he or she affiliates. The GangStyle.com website offers an opportunity for gang members to explore the possibility of leaving their gang. Need a reason to get out of a gang?

Guide for Implementing the Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent, and Chronic Juvenile Offenders

The Comprehensive Strategy and this 269-page Guide are important resources for communities interested in identifying and implementing solutions to growing juvenile violence by creating a more effective juvenile justice system. The Guide was prepared by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention in 1995 and edited by James C. Howell. Copies are available from that Office.

Learning from Gangs: The Mexican-American Experience

This article discusses the origins of Mexican-American gangs, the gang subculture, and what can be learned from our experience of such gangs.

Mediation: A Gang Prevention Strategy

This article talks about mediation between two gang groups. The groups "were not hard-core business gangs," but "groups...in the early gang formation stages." Communication between them was hampered by cultural and gender differences; they were divided racially and one group had female participants, while the other was male dominated. The escalation of the conflict between the two groups reached a high level of violence: four people were stabbed and several beaten. Mediation was needed. Other mediation sites include The School Mediator's Field Guide and the Santa Barbara (CA) Pro-Youth Coalition. You can also visit the homepage of the National Association for Community Mediation.

Mentoring Programs for At-Risk Youth

This informative site provides a list of materials of use to those interested in mentoring at-risk youth. It also includes links to additional web sites on mentoring.

Mothers Against Gang Wars

Mothers Against Gang Wars is dedicated to ending gang violence and the destruction of youth. Here you will find information about the organization, what they do, and how you can help make a difference.

National Crime Prevention Council (NCPC)

The National Crime Prevention Council offers several brochures on a variety of topics including how to reduce violence and crime in your community. They also offer conferences and other programs in which you may have an interest. The NCPC also has a Site Map which provides you with an opportunity to obtain a wide variety of related literature online.

National Youth Employment Coalition

The National Youth Employment Coalition (NYEC) is a nonpartisan national organization dedicated to promoting policies and initiatives which help youth succeed in becoming lifelong learners, productive workers, and self-sufficient citizens. The organization is dedicated to: developing and improving the capacity and effectiveness of youth-serving organizations to affect youth development through employment, education and training; improving the staff and leadership capacity of youth serving organizations; and influencing and informing the development of public policy through research, information, advocacy and coalition-building 

National Youth Violence Prevention Center

The National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center  was established as a central source of information on prevention and intervention programs, publications, research, and statistics on violence committed by and against children and teens. The Resource Center is a collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention and other Federal agencies. You can visit the center's website (above) or call center toll free at 1-866-SAFEYOUTH (723-3968). The phone number serves as a user-friendly, single point of access to Federal information on youth violence prevention and suicide.

New Approaches Needed to Discourage Gang

A new study confirms that parental behavior can affect how likely teenagers are to join a gang or participate in gang delinquency. But the study also reveals that the same behaviors that discourage gang activity in teens from one ethnic group might have no effect, or even encourage gang activity, in teens from a different ethnic group. The same research indicates that gang intervention programs, which often focus on teens' peer relationships, could be more effective if they also addressed the parent-teen relationship.

Partnership for Children

Some communities are developing "report cards" on the well-being of their youth (example). In the case of Kansas City's (MO) Partnership for Children, the report card is used to focus community attention on problems which lead, among other things, to gang activity.

Positive Alternatives for Hispanic Youth

Use your computer's FIND command (under EDIT in your tool box at the top of your screen or hold down the CTRL key (or Apple key if you are on a Mac) then press the F key (for Find). When the FIND box opens on your screen, type in the word "Hispanic" and you will find several contacts for programs offering positive alternative activities for Hispanic youth.

Preventing Adolescent Gang Involvement
(September 2000)

After describing the key characteristics of youth gangs, this document examines risk factors for gang membership, including individual and family demographics, personal attributes, and peer group, school, and community factors.

Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn't, What's Promising

A report to the U.S. Congress prepared by the National Institute of Justice. Scroll down the home page to select from a variety of topics such as "Communities and Crime Prevention," "Family-Based Crime Prevention," "School-Based Crime Prevention," "Preventing Crime at Places," and much more.

Gang prevention strategies are presented and illustrated with examples of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention programs. Primary prevention targets the entire at-risk population, while secondary prevention focuses on those identified as being at greatest risk for delinquency. Finally, tertiary prevention efforts involve juvenile offenders and youth gang members.

Promising Interventions

This compendium of successful programs should prove a valuable tool for juvenile justice professionals seeking appropriate prevention and treatment programs in order to deter future delinquency.

Promising Violence Prevention Programs

The Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence has identified a host of "promising programs," programs which have a proven track record of being effective in reducing violence. 

Safe and Drug Free Schools Program

The Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program is the United States government's primary vehicle for reducing drug, alcohol and tobacco use, and violence, through education and prevention activities in our nation's schools. This program is designed to prevent violence in and around schools, and strengthen programs that prevent the illegal use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, involve parents, and are coordinated with related Federal, State and community efforts and resources.

Safety Zone's Violence Prevention Programs

Safety Zone is an affiliate of the National Resource Center for Safe Schools. This site provides links to a variety of publications they offer which highlight successful violence prevention programs.

School Resource Officers (SROs)

SROs can be an invaluable asset for the schools they serve. They initiate and nurture relationships with students, teachers, parents, and administrators in an effort to create a safe and caring environment for everyone in the school. They offer in-class and extracurricular programs which foster the development of pro-social values, attitudes, and behavior. 

Search Institute

The motto of this wonderful organization is "Raising Caring and Responsible Children and Teenagers." Search Institute is an independent, nonprofit, nonsectarian organization whose mission is to advance the well-being of adolescents and children by generating knowledge and promoting its application. To accomplish this mission, the institute generates, synthesizes, and communicates new knowledge, convenes organizational and community leaders, and works with state and national organizations.

¡Soy Unica! ¡Soy Latina!

There are almost 7 million Hispanic girls under the age of 18 living in the United States today. They face higher rates of pregnancy, depression and suicide than any racial or ethnic group. This bilingual public education campaign is designed to help them build self-esteem and assertiveness, and to keep them healthy and drug-free.

Take Action Against Bullying

Bullying is one of the most underrated and enduring problems in schools today and is a reality in the lives of all children, whether they are bullies, victims or witnesses. Teachers, students, support staff, parents and administrators need to work as a team to take action against bullying.

Talking to Children About Violence and Other Sensitive and Complex Issues in the World

This guide explores some of the questions that parents and teachers ask most frequently about ways to have discussions about violence and events such as the attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon on September 11, 2001, and the bombing of Afghanistan. 

Trajectories of Violent Offending and Risk Status in Adolescence and Early Adulthood (2006)

This study investigated violent offending in adolescence and early adulthood with an aim of building practical knowledge to guide prevention programs and policies. The study examined risk factors that influence violent offending and described how offending and risk levels change over adolescence and into early adulthood.

Truancy Prevention

More than 700 participants attended a national conference on truancy held in Washington, DC, on December 6–8, 2004. "Partnering To Prevent Truancy: A National Priority" was cosponsored by the U.S. Departments of Justice and Education.

Recognizing that truancy is a complex problem and that focusing on attendance alone is not enough, the conference organizers highlighted efforts to address the "three A's"—school Attendance, Attachment, and Achievement.

Urban Street Gang Enforcement
(January 1997)

This guide for police suggests that "Although effective law enforcement is critical, it represents only one element of a community's efforts to eliminate criminal street gangs. A comprehensive approach is required--residents, prevention specialists, private businesses and organizations, schools, and others must get involved."

Urban Youth

The Urban Leadership Institute is dedicated to the education and empowerment of urban youth by providing training and workshops to young people as well as the professionals who work with them and organizations that provide programs and activities for them.

Violence-Free Zones

Many residents of high-crime areas of our nation's inner cities are virtual prisoners in their own homes because of youth violence. The National Center for Neighborhood Enterprise (NCNE) reports that it has found an effective solution they call "Violence-Free Zones." NCNE supports grassroots leaders within high-crime neighborhoods in five cities, who have effectively reached out to street gang members and warring "crews" and have transformed violence-prone youths into ambassadors of peace.

Violence Prevention and Reduction

Learn about tips for teacher safety, how to use discipline to prevent violence, how to keep classrooms violence-free, how to break up a fight, and much more.

Working Together To Erase Gangs in Our Schools

A common misconception about gangs is that they resemble past images of motorcycle riders. Society is now faced with what are called "hybrid" gangs whose members are usually 14 to 16 years of age, who dress conservatively, who display subtle gang identifiers, and who are motivated by a combination of profit and poor family life. This booklet contains information to help teachers identify gang members and gang activities on their campus. The first step to solving gang problems is to be aware that they do exist. Teachers are essential to gang intervention and prevention because of the amount of time children spend in the classroom each day. Some of these students can be saved from a life of crime if they are diverted from gang activities at an early age. Some of the topics covered in this booklet are definitions; types of gangs; gang awareness in the classroom; gang attire, tattoos, graffiti, and hand signals; and language. Further discussion is offered on why kids join gangs and the various types of gangs present in society, such as delinquent youth-gangs, traditional turf-based gangs, gain-oriented gangs, and violent/hate gangs. Finally, suggestions are given as to what schools can do to limit gang activities. (See the Abstract)

Youth Build

Youth Build is a comprehensive youth and community development program as well as an alternative school. Designed to run on a 12-month cycle, it offers job training, education, counseling, and leadership development opportunities to unemployed and out-of-school young adults, ages 16-24, through the construction and rehabilitation of affordable housing in their own communities. Many graduates go on to construction-related jobs or college. Alumni receive post-program counseling. The buildings that are rehabilitated or constructed during the program are usually owned and managed by community-based organizations as permanent low-income housing.

Youth Gang Consortium Survey of Federal Gang Programs

This overview identifies key federal activities and programs designed to impact the growing problem of youth gangs in America through prevention, intervention, and suppression initiatives.

Youth Gang Programs and Strategies

Among the most significant programs discussed are prevention programs, intervention programs, and suppression programs. Strategies reviewed include strategies using multiple techniques, multiagency initiatives, comprehensive approaches to gang problems, and gang-related legislation.

Youth Gangs: An Overview

While you may enjoy reading the entire 20 pages of this article, I'd like to draw your attention to the Solutions section of it located on page 13.

Youth Gangs in America: An Overview of Suppression, Intervention, and Prevention Programs
(March 1997)

This document discusses the Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT) program (taught in elementary- and middle schools by specially trained law enforcement personnel, Fort Worth's (TX) Comin' Up Program, and the Little Village Gang Violence Reduction Project.

Youth Gang Programs and Strategies
(August 2000)

Because of the wealth of information available in this booklet, I have included its Table of Contents below. Click on any item of interest and you will be taken to that portion of the document or click here to get to the front page of the document.

Prevention Programs

Intervention Programs

Suppression Programs

Strategies Using Multiple Techniques

Multiagency Initiatives

Comprehensive Approaches to Gang Problems

Legislation

Assessment of Youth Gang Programs
Stereotypes Versus Modern Youth Gangs
Recommendations
Conclusion
References
Directory of Programs, Strategies, and Organizations
Index of Programs, Strategies, and Organizations
Publications From OJJDP

Continually Up-Dated Lists of Materials

For continually updated lists of related articles, visit the sites of the following agencies. Although the OJJDP and NCJRS each sponsor research on topics other than gangs, I have linked you to their gang-related literature to save you time in searching for such material.

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© 2002 Michael K. Carlie
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the author and copyright holder - Michael K. Carlie.