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Arden Miller, Ph.D

Professor of Psychology
Missouri State University


Psychological Statistical Methods




Unit 11: Correlation

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Objectives and Lecture Notes
Reading: Aron, Chapter 11

1. Create a scatter diagram (scatter plot) for pairs of scores from subjects.

2. Recognize the types of correlation that are possible and compute a correlation coefficient.

3.  Review appropriateness of inferences from correlational studies and identify alternate hypotheses that are associated with correlational findings.

4. Determine whether a correlation coefficient is statistically significant.

5. Review and apply issues relevant to interpreting a correlation coefficient.

6. Given the expected size of a correlation coefficient, use tables to determine the power of a study, and the N needed for a power of 80%.

7. Interpret correlation matrices that are typically used in research studies.


Correlation using the grand mean
Negative Correlation
Correlation example: Fox News
Create Scatterplot in Excel
Create Scatterplot in SPSS
QA on Correlations