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Arden Miller, Ph.D

Professor of Psychology
Missouri State University


Psychological Statistical Methods




Unit 12: Chi Square

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Objectives and Lecture Notes
Reading: Aron, Chapter 13

1. Explain when nonparametric statistics are needed and compute a  χ² for goodness of fit to test a hypothesis based upon a rational for expected means.

2. Compute a  χ² statistic for the relationship of two nominal variables to test a hypothesis about the independence of the variables.

3. Use crosstabs to compute a  χ² statistic for a contingency table using SPSS.

4.  Compute and interpret an effect size for  χ² findings from contingency tables.

5. Use tables to determine N needed for a given level of statistical power.

6. Recognize and understand concerns over the limits of small expected frequencies in using chi-squared tests.

7. Recognize how to display and interpret findings from contingency tables in articles.


 χ² Q & A