Into The Abyss:
A Personal Journey into the World of Street Gangs

by Mike Carlie, Ph.D.        
Copyright
© 2002
Michael K. Carlie
Continually updated.

~ Table of Contents ~
Home | Foreword | Preface | Orientation

What I Learned | Conclusions
End Note |
Solutions
Resources
| Appendix
Site Map / Contents
| New Research

Up-To-Date Gang-Related News

 

Gang-Related Citations as Compiled by from
WorldCat and the Criminal Justice Abstracts
From January 2001 through June 2003

(Click here for the list of gang-related publications
from July, 2003, through March, 2006.)

The 2001-2003 bibliography below was initially compiled by Eric Deatherage, MSU Graduate Assistant.
In 2008, Christopher Laughlin, MSU Senior, found and included all the Internet links.
My thanks to both Mr. Deatherage and Mr. Laughlin for their considerable contributions.

Citation Note: Article, book and other abstracts and reviews found below were written by the various site publishers or authors as found by clicking on the provided URLs.

To search this page by topic:
Use your computer's FIND function (select "FIND on this page" as found under EDIT in your toolbar) or use CTRL-F on your keyboard. Once the FIND box appears, type in a keyword to search this page.

If you'd like to read abstracts for any of the Criminal Justice Abstract citations, please go to that publication. Most university and other scholarly libraries have a subscription to Criminal Justice Abstracts.

KEY:

*        Online abstracts

**       Full PDF files

***      Reviews on Google Books

1998 National Youth Gang Survey: Summary , Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2000.

*After City of Chicago v. Jesus Morales: A Resource Guide for Teachers, Chicago, IL : Division for Public Education, American Bar Association, 2000.

This resource guide is intended to help teachers lead their students through an exploration of the issues and story of "After Chicago v. Morales." The guide explains that in 1992 the city of Chicago (Illinois) passed an ordinance authorizing the police to arrest people in a group if they failed to move along or were thought to belong to a gang. After the constitutionality of the law was challenged at all levels in the Illinois courts, it was declared unconstitutional by the Illinois Supreme Court and the decision was upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court.

*Alarid, Leanne, Fiftal, and Cromwell, Paul F., Correctional Perspectives: Views from Academics, Practitioners, and Prisoners, Los Angeles, Calif.: Roxbury Pub. Co., 2002.

This anthology features twelve contemporary topical areas in corrections - chosen for the unique challenges which each presents to researchers, correctional practitioners, and prisoners. Each topic is systematically examined from three different perspectives - academic, practitioner, and prisoner - for a total of thirty-six readings. Students compare each perspective and determine how they diverge or how they are similar. Some include: Institutional Crowding, HIV/AIDS in Corrections, Women Guarding Men

*Alexander, Claire E., The Asian Gang: Ethnicity, Identity, Masculinity, Oxford: Berg, 2000.

This topical ethnography examines the rise of 'the Asian Gang' as a new 'folk devil' in British journalism and public opinion. It then describes the daily lives, social networks, and longer-term aspirations of the putative 'gang members', and finally argues for a more multifaceted appreciation of identity formations so as to challenge hegemonic assumptions and exclusions.

*Allender, David M., "Gangs in Middle America: Are They a Threat?," FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 70, (12), 2001, pp.1-9.

In the past 30 years, changes have occurred in how the police and the public view, define, and discuss gangs. (1) In the late 1960s and early 1970s, police in large cities generally acknowledged the existence of gang activity within their jurisdictions. During the 1970s, the public was recovering from the Vietnam War and dealing with a wide variety of important social issues and changes. Gangs and crime did not demand the same attention as these other matters.

*Anderson, Amy L., "Individual and Contextual Influences on Delinquency: the Role of the Single Parent Family," Journal of Criminal Justice, 30, (6), 2002, pp. 575-587.

Research indicates that children are at risk for delinquency if they live in a single-parent family and if they live in areas with high levels of family disruption. Although there is a substantial amount of research on both the individual and aggregate relationships, examining delinquency at either of these two levels alone is not appropriate. Specifically, families do not exist in isolation as individual-level research inherently assumes, and aggregate research is concerned with explaining rates of delinquency as opposed to explaining influences on individual behavior.

Anderson, Christian T., Commonalities in Susceptibility for Chemical, Gambling, and Sexual Addictions, New Religious Movements, and Youth Gangs, 2003.

Anderson, James F., Mangels, Nancie J., and Dyson, Laronistine,  "A Gang by Any Other Name is Just a Gang:Towards an Expanded Definition of Gangs", Journal of Gang Research, 8, (4), 2001, pp. 19-34.

Anderson, James F., Brooks, Willie, and Langsam, Adam, "The New Female Gang Member: Anomaly or Evolution?," Journal of Gang Research, 10,(1), pp. 47-65.

*Andrews, Curtis Albert, A Case Study of the Types and Prevalence of Violence at Two Middle Schools and One High School in the Camden County Public School System, 2000.

The purpose of this study was to determine the types and prevalence of violence in three high schools in the Camden City Public School District, as perceived by students, staff, and a Gang Abatement Task Force. This study reviewed archival data found in school incident reports and used limited portions of the National Crime Victimization Survey (Office of Juvenile Justice, 1997), including the following sub tests: Nonfatal Student Victimization, the School Crime Supplements, the National Household Education Survey, and Monitoring the Future. The Principal/School Disciplinary Survey was also used to determine principals' perceptions of actual reported incidents of school violence.

*Arbreton, Amy J. A., McClanahan, Wendy S., Targeted Outreach: Boys & Girls Clubs of America's Approach to Gang Prevention and Intervention, Philadelphia, Pa. : Public/Private Ventures, 2002.

This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Gang Prevention Through Targeted Outreach (GPTTO) and Gang Intervention Through Targeted Outreach (GITTO) initiatives of the Boys & Girls Clubs of America. The study examined whether the clubs were attracting youth at high risk of gang involvement, whether clubs could keep GPTTO and GITTO youth participating in the club or program, whether GITTO and GPTTO youth were receiving positive supports through participation in the club, and whether participation had positive effects on the lives of GPTTO and GITTO youth. The evaluation involved 21 clubs that used the prevention approach and 3 that used the intervention approach. Survey results indicated that GPTTO and GITTO were meeting their goals. Clubs attracted and retained youth at high risk of gang involvement. GPTTO and GITTO youth received key developmental supports at the clubs that they might otherwise seek through involvement with gangs.

Arculus, Paul, Mayhem to Murder: The History of the Markham Gang, Organized Crime in Canada West During the 1840's, Port Perry, Ont. : Observer Publishing of Port Perry, 2003.

*Arthur, Richard, educator.; Erickson, Edsel L., Gangs and Schools, Holmes Beach, FL: Learning Publications, 2000.

This book explores the U.S. gang problem, based on the author's 35 years of experience as a high school and junior high school teacher, principal, and community organizer in Oakland and Los Angeles (California). Chapters discuss the subculture of gang worlds, reasons why youth are attracted to gangs, how educators can reach out to students, the hold that gangs have on members, the role of important others in adolescent development, classroom climate, the importance of the learning climate in gang membership attraction, the importance of an atmosphere of safety to discourage gang formation, and the role of community school settings. Gangs are the result of urban decay, poverty, discrimination, family disorganization, cultural differences, social class resentments, and dislocation.

*Asbury, Herbert, The Gangs of Chicago: An Informal History of the Chicago Underworld , New York: Thunder's Mouth Press : Distributed by Publishers Group West, 2002.

This classic history of crime tells how Chicago’s underworld earned—and kept—its reputation. Recounting the lives of such notorious denizens as the original Mickey Finn, the mass murderer H. H. Holmes, and the three Car Barn Bandits, Asbury reveals life as it was lived in the criminal districts of the Levee, Hell’s Half-Acre, the Bad Lands, Little Cheyenne, Custom House Place, and the Black Hole. His description of Chicago’s infamous red light district—where the brothels boasted opulence unheard of before or since—vividly captures the wicked splendor that was Chicago. The Gangs of Chicago spans from the time "Slab Town" was settled to Prohibition days.

Asbury, Herbert, The Gangs of New York :An Informal History of the Underworld , Waterville, Me.: Wheeler Pub., 2003.

*Aunapu, Greg., Billig, Susan, Without a Trace: The Disappearance of Amy Billig: A Mother's Search for Justice , New York, N.Y.: Avon, 2001.

On March 5, 1974 -- the same day that rival motorcycle clubs roared through suburban Miami in celebration of their annual "Bike Week" -- seventeen-year-old Amy Billig left home to meet a friend for lunch ... and vanished. Several days later, Amy's frantic mother, Susan Billig, received an anonymous phone call saying that her daughter had been carried off by one of the biker gangs. And so began Susan's harrowing and extraordinary twenty-five-year search for her lost child -- an odyssey that led a desperate parent into the seedy heart of a dangerous subculture built on drugs, rebellion, brutality, and sex; a relentless hunt for the truth that showed her the best side of humanity...and the very worst.

Baba, Yoko, "Vietnamese Gangs, Cliques, and Delinquents," Journal of Gang Research, 8, (2), 2001,  pp. 1-20.

Baggett, A. Russell, The City of Chicago: "Interventions for Youth", Chicago, Ill.: Intergovernmental Executive Development Program, 2001.

Baik, Kyung, Hwan, and Kim, In, Gyu, "Optimal Punishment When Individuals May Learn Deviant Values," International Review of Law and Ecoomics, 21,(3), 2001, pp. 271-285.

Balasingham, Suthargini, Toronto Tamil Youth : The Realities, Scarborough, Ont.: Canadian Tamil Youth Development Centre (CanTYD), 2000.

***Barger, Ralph., Zimmerman, Keith.; Zimmerman, Kent, Hell's Angel : The Life and Times of Sonny Barger and the Hell's Angels Motorcycle Club, New York: William Morrow, 2000.

*Barkin, Shari, Kreiter, Shelly, and Durant, Robert H., "Exposure to Violence and Intentions to Engage in Moralistic Violence During Early Adolescence," Journal of Adolescence, 24, (6), 2001, pp 777-789.

This study examined young adolescents'intentions to use moralistic violence and their violence exposure, examining male–female differences. Sixth-grade students from Georgia middle schools servicing impoverished communities participated. Data were obtained on the students' exposure to violence, family structure and education level, church attendance, gang interest, drug use, and depression status.

Berrios, Reynaldo, Mi Vida Loca: Life in the Barrio, Los Angeles, Calif.: London: Feral House ; Turnaround, 2003.

**Basic Course Workbook Series, Student Materials.  Learning Domain #38, Gang Awareness, Sacramento, CA : California Commission on Peace Officer Standards and Training, 2000.

*Benda, Brent B., Corwyn Robert, Flynn, and Toombs, Nancy J., "From Adolescent 'Serious Offender' to Adult Felon: A Predictive Study of Offense Progression," Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 32,(3), 2001, pp. 79-108.

Studies 248 adolescents who had been in a Serious Offender Program to examine the relative predictiveness of: a common risk assessment tool; a battery of psychological tests; and a combination of demographic and theoretical factors. Regression procedures indicate that the following are significant predictors: prior commitment; male; gang members; carry weapons; and peers present during committing of offense

Benda, Brent B., Corwyn, Robert, Flynn, and Toombs, Nancy J., "Recidivism among Adolecent Serious Offenders: Prediction of Entry into the Correctional System for Adults," Criminal Justice and Behavior: An International Journal, 28, (5), 2001, pp. 588-613.

*Blake, Duane, Shower Posse: The Most Notorious Jamaican Criminal Organization, New York, NY : Diamond Publishing, 2002.

This tell-all saga is in the words of its mastermind, Vivian Blake. Blake skyrocketed to wealth with savvy business skills, but his savage henchmen terrorized the sheets into submission. Blake's men had been raised in Jamaica where murders went unsolved daily. Shower ran wild spraying bullets on anyone and everyone in their way. Their weapons, fingerprints and m.o.'s were not traceable. Most American police had never seen any of them before. That careless attitude toward pulling triggers earned a record 1400+ murders and quickly established Shower's rep.

***Blee, Kathleen M., Inside Organized Racism: Women in the Hate Movement, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Boerman, Thomas J., Adolescent Gang and Non-Gang Offenders: Assessment of Explanatory Factors and Institution-to-Community Transitional Outcomes, 2002.

Boerman, Thomas, "Ecological Assessment. Establishing Ecological Validity in Gang Intervention Strategies: A call for Ecologically sensitive Assessment of Gang Affected Youth," Journal of Gang Research, 8, (2), pp. 35-48.

**"Bomb and Arson Crimes Among American Gang Members: A Behavioral Science Profile," Journal of Gang Research, 9, (1), 2001, pp. 1-38.

Booth, Martin, The Dragon Syndicates: The Global Phenomenon of the Triads, New York : Carroll & Graf, 2001.

Borrero, Michael, "The Widening Mistrust Between Youth and Police," Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 82, (4), pp. 399-408.

Bouley, Eugene E., Jr., and Wells, Terry, L., Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 17, (1), 2001, pp. 60-70.

*Bowen, Gary L., and Van, Dorn, Richard A., "Community Violent Crime Rates and School Danger," Children and Schools, 24, (2), 2002, pp. 90-104.

The study discussed in this article investigated the association between community violent crime rates and middle school students' perceptions of school danger. School danger was defined as fighting among students, destruction of school property, students carrying weapons, and gang fights. Data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 857 middle school students. Findings indicate that community crime rates are associated with male middle school students' reports of school danger but not female students' reports. Implications for community- and school-based preventive interventions are discussed in the context of social disorganization theory.

Birts, Warner B., What Values do Gangs Exhibit Within the Context of the School?, 2002.

*Braga, Anthony A., Kennedy, David M', and Waring, Elin J., et. al., "Problem-Oriented Policing, Deterrence, and youth Violence: An Evaluation of Boston's Operation Ceasefire," Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38, (3), pp. 195-225.

Operation Ceasefire is a problem-oriented policing intervention aimed at reducing youth homicide and youth firearms violence in Boston. It represented an innovative partnership between researchers and practitioners to assess the city's youth homicide problem and implement an intervention designed to have a substantial near-term impact on the problem. Operation Ceasefire was based on the "pulling levers" deterrence strategy that focused criminal justice attention on a small number of chronically offending gang-involved youth responsible for much of Boston's youth homicide problem. Our impact evaluation suggests that the Ceasefire intervention was associated with significant reductions in youth homicide victimization, shots-fired calls for service, and gun assault incidents in Boston

Brotherton, David., Barrios, Luis, Between Black and Gold: Street Politics and the Transformation of a New York City Gang , New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

Brownfield, David, and Thompson, Kevin, "Destinguishing the Effects of Peer Delinquency and Gang Membership on Self-Reported Delinquency," Journal of Gang Research, 9, (2), 2002, pp. 1-10.

Brucano, Toni Lynn, Ethnic Identity Exploration with Incarcerated Gang-Involved Adolescent Latino Males, 2000.

*Bjerregaard, Beth, "Self-Definitions of Gang Membership and Involvement in Delinquent Activities," Youth and Society, 34, (1), 2002, pp. 31-54.

Examined the relationship between various methods of operationalizing gang membership and delinquency. Surveys of inner city adolescents indicated that teens reporting membership in organized gangs were far more likely to believe their gangs possessed characteristics typically associated with traditional street gangs. Teens who considered themselves members of organized gangs were more apt to engage in all types of delinquency.

Booth, Martin, The Dragon Syndicates: The Global Phenomenon of the Triads, New York: Carroll & Graf, 2000, ©1999.

Brandt, Gerri, Ann, and Russell, Brenda, "Differentiating Factors in Gang and Drug Related Homicide," Journal of Gang Research, 9, (2), 2002, pp. 23-40.

**Brownfield, David, Sorenson, Ann, Marie, and Thompson, Kevin M., "Gang Membership, Race, and Social Class: A Test of the Group Hazard and Master Status Hypotheses," Deviant Behavior, 22, (1), 2001, pp. 73-89.

Cabrera, Oscar Amadeo, Psychological and Behavioral Correlates of Adolescent Gang Involvement, 2001.

Caldwell, Laura, and Altschuler, David M., "Adolescents Leaving Gangs:An Analysis of Risk andProtective Factors, Resiliency, and Desistence in a Developmental Context," Journal of Gang Research, 8, (2), 2001, pp. 21-34.

Camacho, Marco A., Managing Our Gang Situation: An Analysis of California's Legal Policies, Latino Gangs, and Their Nexus, 2000.

**Camp, Scott D., Gaes, Gerald G. Klein, and Saffran, Jody, "Using Inmate Survey Data in Assessing Prison Performance: A Case Study Comparing Private and Public Prisons," Criminal Justice Review, 27, (1), 2002, pp. 26-51.

Cannon, Kevin D., The Effect of Gang Membership on Prison Rule Violations, 2000.

Carlson, Peter M., "Prison Interventions: Evolving Strategies to Control Security Threat Groups," Corrections Management Quarterly, 5, (1), 2001, pp. 10-22.

Carraway, Sandra Lynne Deal, Middle School Principals' Awareness of Gang Activity in Their Schools. 2001.

*Century, Douglas, Street Kingdom: Five Years Inside the Franklin Avenue Posse , New York: Warner Books, 2000.

Rookie author Douglas Century delivers a gritty account of street life in urban America. Street Kingdom started out in 1992 as an odd-couple friendship between Century, a Jewish-Canadian Princeton alum, and Big K, a black New Yorker trying to overcome his criminal past and become a rap star. Their five-year relationship--full of culture clashes at turns funny, depressing, and harrowing--allows Century to examine prison life, the sociology of gangs, and the meaning of success in the 1990s. Big K is an irresistible character study: a 270-pound, larger-than-life, one-man melting pot with roots in Jamaica and Panama. His raps blend Caribbean slang, Spanish influences, and the sensibilities (and insensibilities) of urban America. The book's heavy use of profanity may be authentic, but it's also numbing, and Century's decision to use aliases diminishes his otherwise fine journalism.

Cepeda, Alice, and Avelardo, Valdez, "Risk Behavior among Young Mexican American Gang-Associated Females: Sexual Relations, Parting, Substance Use, and Crime," Journal of Adolescent Research, 18,(1), 2003, pp. 90-106.

***Chan, Wendy, and Mirchandani, Kiran, Crimes of Colour: Racialization and the Criminal Justice System in Canada, Peterborough, Ont.: Broadview Press, 2002.

**Chen, Hsinchun, Schroeder, Jenny, and Hauck, Roslin, V., "COPLINK Connect: Information and Knowledge Management for Law Enforcement," Decision Support Systems, 34, (3), 2002, pp. 271-285.

Cheong, Damien D., An Analysis of the Hong Kong Criminal Justice System and its Effectiveness in Dealing with Triads, 2000.

Chesney-Lind, Meda, Dimensions of Youth Gang Membership and Juvenile Delinquency in Hawai‘ia Report to the Twenty-first Hawai‘i State Legislature / Volume I , Honolulu, HI : Center for Youth Research, Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, 2001.

Chesney-Lind, Meda, Responding to Youth Gangs and Juvenile delinquency in Hawai‘i
a Report to the Twenty-first Hawai‘i State Legislature / Volume II
, Honolulu, HI : Center for Youth Research, Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, 2001.

Chesney-Lind, Meda. An Inquiry into Youth Crime and Violence in Hawai‘i: Interim Report to the Twenty-Second Hawai‘i State Legislature, Honolulu, HI : Center for Youth Research, Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, 2000.

**Chesney-Lind, Meda, Understanding Gangs and Delinquency on Oahu.  A Report to the Twenty-Second Hawai‘i State Legislature / Vol. 1 , Honolulu: Center for Youth Research, Social Science Research Institute, University of Hawai‘i at Manoa, 2003

**Chicago (Ill.), City of Chicago v. Morales (1999), Bethesda, Md.: University Publications of America, 2000.

*Chin, Ko-lin, Chinatown Gangs: Extortion, Enterprise, and Ethnicity , New YorK; Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

In Chinatown Gangs, Ko-lin Chin penetrates a closed society and presents a rare portrait of the underworld of New York City's Chinatown. Based on first-hand accounts from gang members, gang victims, community leaders, and law enforcement authorities, this pioneering study reveals the pervasiveness, the muscle, the longevity, and the institutionalization of Chinatown gangs. Chin reveals the fear gangs instill in the Chinese community.

Chinese Triads: Perspectives on Histories, Identities, and Spheres of Impact , Singapore: Singapore History Museum, 2002.

***Chu, Yiu Kong, The Triads as Business, London; New York : Routledge, 2000.

Clark, Linda S., Georgia Middle School Principals' Perceptions of Strategies that may be Effective in Deterring Gang-Related Activity, 2000.

*Coid, Jeremy W., "The Federal Administrative Maximum Penitentiary, Florence, Colorado," Medical Science and the Law, 41, (4), 2001, pp. 287-297.

Policies for the control of dangerous and disruptive prisoners in European penal institutions depend upon social regimes managed by prison staff. These contrast with certain US regimes where there is increasing use of the incapacitation approach. This paper describes an incapacitation regime developed in the US Federal Administrative Maximum Penitentiary (ADX), Florence, Colorado which is complemented by an architectural design minimizing contact between prisoners and staff. This is reported to have been highly effective in controlling violent and predatory behaviour, escapes, drug-taking, and the influence of members of criminal gangs and notorious prisoners transferred to the ADX. Despite a shift of policy from therapeutic intervention towards deterrence of problem behaviour in prisons in some European countries, such as the UK, it is unlikely that such a regime would be acceptable in Europe.

Coleman, Stephen, Violent Crime Among Minnesota's Asian Americans: A Report to the Minnesota Legislature, St. Paul, Minn.: Center for Applied Research and Policy Analysis, School of Law Enforcement, Criminal Justice, and Public Safety, Metropolitan State University, 2000.

Colón, Héctor Juan, An Empirical Study of Hispanic, Gang-Involved Adolescents Incarcerated in Western Massachusetts: A Project Based Upon an Investigation at Robert F. Kennedy Children's Action Corps in Springfield, Massachusetts, 2002.

Collins, Amy, The Effectiveness of the Illinois Gang Crime Prevention Center, 2002

Collum, James W., Gang Life as an Educational Process: A Qualitative Study of Nonformal Education in Adult African American Street Gangs in Chicago, 2001.

Connell, Steve James, An Exploratory Study of Brutality in a Street Gang Subculture, 2000.

**Controlling Gang and Drug House Nuisances in Chicago, Chicago, IL: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, 2000.

Covey, Herbert C., Street Gangs Throughout the World, Springfield, Ill. : Charles C Thomas, Publisher, 2003.

Although a substantial amount of research on street gangs has been conducted in recent decades, much of it has focused on the United States. This book attempts to summarize much of the research being conducted in many other countries where the street gang phenomenon is currently developing. The introductory section of the text addresses important topics on the various definitions of gangs and youth subcultures and presents methodological issues concerning the measurement of street gang activity in different countries.

Craig, Mark, The Chinese Underworld: A Revisionist Perspective, St. Lucia, Qld., 2002.

Crews, Gordon A., Montgomery, Reid H., Chasing Shadows: Confronting Juvenile Violence in America, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001.

Cultural diversity 3939: 2000-2001 Biennium: Student Study Guide, [Austin, Tex.: Texas Parks & Wildlife Dept., Law Enforcement Division, 2001.

*Curry, G. David, Decker, Scott H., Confronting Gangs: Crime and Community, 2nd Ed., Los Angeles, Calif.: Roxbury Park, 2003.

Emphasizing community and neighborhood, Confronting Gangs weaves contemporary research and policy findings around classic and emerging theories of gangs. The book eases instruction by providing students with links between the gang literature and traditional criminological, criminal justice, and sociological approaches to gangs. The book integrates gang perspectives on many issues through the use of quotes from gang members themselves.

 

*Curry, G., David, and Decker, Scott H., "Gang Involvement and Delinquency in a Middle School Population," Justice Quarterly, 19,(2), 2002, pp. 75-292.

The relationship between self-reported gang involvement and self-reported delinquency has been confirmed in a number of studies. However, there have been fewer studies of the relationship between self-reported gang involvement and officially recorded delinquency. This article examines variation in self-reported gang involvement, operationalized as three distinct categories—no involvement, gang involvement but not membership, and gang membership—and its relation to both self-reported and officially recorded delinquency for a population of middle school youths.

**Curry, G. David., Maxson, Cheryl Lee., Howell, James C., Youth Gang Homicides in the 1990's, [Washington, DC]: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2001.

**Dangerous Convictions: An Introduction to Extremist Activities in Prisons, New York, N.Y.: ADL, 2002.

Danyko, Stephen J., Aria, Alisondra, and Martinez, Jose, "Historical Risk Factors Associated with Gang Affiliation in a Resicentan Treatment Facility:A Case/Control Study," Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 20, (1), 2002, pp. 67-77.

*Davies, Andrew, Street gangs and violence in Glasgow in the 1920s and 1930s, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2003.

During the 1930s Glasgow acquired a reputation throughout Britain as a hotbed of gang violence. Contemporary depictions of Glasgow borrowed freely from images of "the gangster" derived from the USA and Hollywood-produced gangster movies, which were massively popular in Britain, provided templates for journalists and aspiring gang members alike. The city's notoriety was sealed by the publication of the novel "No Mean City", the story of a Gorbals gang leader and "razor king" in October 1935. This made a massive, immediate and lasting impact, cementing the name of Glasgow as a byword for violence. This book offers a thorough social history of the infamous street gangs of Glasgow in the 1920s and '30s.

Davis, Mark S., and Flannery, Daniel J., "The Institutional Treatment of Gang Members," Corrections Management Quarterly, 5, (1), 2001, pp. 37-46.

Decker, Scott H. , From the Streets to the Prison: Understanding and Responding to Gangs, [S.l.] :National Major Gang Task Force, 2001.

Decker, Scott H., Policing Gangs and Youth Violence , Belmont, CA : Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2003.

**Decker, Scott H., Weisel, Deborah H., and Miller Jody,  Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research, Washington, D.C., National Institute of Justice, 2002.

Delgado, Sonya Lynn, Our Middle-School Youth: in Trouble with Gangs?, 2001.

Dennehy, Glennis., Newbold, Greg., The Girls in the Gang , Auckland: Reed, 2001.

Dinnen, Sinclair, Law and Order in a Weak State: Crime and Politics in Papua New Guinea, Honolulu: Center for Pacific Islands Studies, School of Hawaiian, Asian, and Pacific Studies, University of Hawai'i Press, 2001.

**Dixon, Bill., Johns, Lisa-Marie, Gangs, Pagad & the State: Vigilantism and Revenge Violence in the Western Cape, Braamfontein; CSVR, 2001.

*Dixon, Martin, Brooklyn Kings: New York City's Black Bikers, New York : London: PowerHouse; Turnaround, 2002.

Martin Dixon's camera takes us inside this clandestine world that is unfamiliar to most. It is full of rough edges, hard men and tough women. Shrewdly, he does not present the bikers as merely a "tan version" of the more familiar white bikers. These men and women come from all walks of life: cops, criminals and civil servants. It is to Dixon's credit that he shows us the harshness as well as the familial closeness of the bikers' lives.

Docuyanan, Faye, Inscribing at the Crossroads of Culture and Crime: Graffiti in Place and on Property in Urban Los Angeles, 2002

Early-Pete, and Shur, Gerald, WITSEC: Inside the Federal Witness Protection Program, New York: Bantam Books, 2002.

Eckhart Dan, "Civil Actions Related to Prison Gangs: A Survey of Federal Cases," Corrections Management Quarterly, 5, (1) 2001, pp. 59-64.

Egendorf, Laura K., Can the criminal justice system reduce gang violence?, San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2001.

Egendorf, Laura K., Gangs: Opposing Viewpoints, San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press, 2001.

Egendorf, Laura K., How Can Society End the Threat of Gangs?, San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2001.

Egendorf, Laura K., How widespread is the problem of gangs?, San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2001

Egendorf, Laura K., What factors influence gang behavior?, San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2001.

**Egley, Arlen, Highlights of the 1999 National Youth Gang Survey, [Washington, DC]: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2000

Egley, Arlen, Levels of Involvement: Differences Between Gang, Gang-marginal, and Nongang Youth, 2003.

**Egley, Arlen, National youth gang survey trends from 1996 to 2000 , [Washington, DC]: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2002.

Elam, Paul. Gang Profiling: A Study of Organized, Urban Gangs in Chicago & San Diego, 2000.

*Esbensen, Finn, Aage, Osgood, D. Wayne, and Taylor Terrance J., "How Great is G.R.E.A.T.? Results from a Longitudinal Quasi- Experimental Design, " Criminology and Public Policy, 1, (1), 2001, pp. 87-118.

This article reports on a survey of administrators, counselors, and teachers from middle schools involved in the National Evaluation of the Gang Resistance Education and Training(G.R.E.A.T.) program. This survey was part of a multisite evaluation that also elicited the responses of students, parents, and officers teaching the G.R.E.A.T. program. School personnel provide their views about important current issues, including their perceptions of school safety, the role of law enforcement officers in schools, and the role and effectiveness of school-based prevention programs in general and the G.R.E.A.T. program in particular. Results from this survey have important implications for the plethora of prevention programs currently located in American schools.

*Esbensen, Finn, Aage, Winfree, L. Thomas, Jr., and He Ni, et. al., "Youth Gangs and Definitional Issues: When is a Gang a Gang, and Why Does it Matter?," Crime and Delinquency, 47, (1), 2001, pp. 105-130.

The recent explosion in gang research has highlighted the importance of consistent definitions for gang affiliation and gang-related crime. Definitional questions have assumed greater significance in the wake of broad-ranging prevention and intervention strategies. In this article, the authors utilize a sample of approximately 6,000 middle-school students to examine the youth gang phenomenon using five increasingly restrictive membership definitions. The least restrictive definition includes all youth who claim gang membership at some point in time. The most restrictive definition includes only those youth who are current core gang members who indicate that their gang has some degree of organizational structure and whose members are involved in illegal activities. The authors examine the differentially defined gang and nongang youths on various demographic characteristics, theretical factors, and levels of self-reported crime. The authors also address the theoretical and policy implications of shifting definitions of gang membership.

**Estes, Richard J., Weiner, Niel A., The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, School of Social Work, Center for the Study of Youth Policy, 2001.

Etter, Lt. Gregg W., Sr., "Totemism and Symbolism in White Supremacist Movements: Images of an Urban Tribal Warrior Culture," Journal of Gang Research, 8, (2), 2001, pp. 49-75.

Evans, Sean Christopher, A Look at Modern Day Gangs Through the Hollywood Lens, 2001.

The FBI's War on Black Amerikkka: The Nation of Gods & Earths (the Five Percenters): The Complete FBI File. , [Chicago, Ill. : Frontline Magazine, 2000.

Finch, Andrew, "Homicide in Contemporary Japan," British Journal of Criminology, 41, (2), 2001, pp. 219-235.

*Fleisher, Mark S., Dead End Kids: Gang Girls and the Boys They Know , Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 2000.

Dead End Kids: Gang Girls and the Boys They Know. Mark S. Fleisher. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998. If you frighten easily, don't read this book. Fleisher gives us one of the best up-close accounts of urban crime, and female involvement in it. A cultural anthropologist and criminal ethnographer, Fleisher takes us into the world of a Kansas City gang called the Fremont Hustlers.

Fleisher, Mark S., Decker, Scott H.,l "Going Home, Staying Home: Integrating Prison Gang Members into the Community," Corrections Management Quarterly, 5, (1), 2001, pp. 65-77.

Fleisher, Mark S., and Decker, Scott H., "An Overview of the Challenge of Prison Gangs," Corrections Management Quarterly, 5, (1), 2001, pp. 1-9.

***Flowers, Ronald B., Kids Who Commit Adult Crimes, New York: Haworth Press, 2002.

Fortin-Magaña, Graciela Maria Teresa, Unintended Consequences: Housing Policies, Design and Crime; the Case of the San Salvador Metropolitan Area, 2001

Fowlin, Michael Simeon, Extracting the Sense From (Non)Sense: A Theoretical Dissertation Applying Existential Themes to Gang Membership and Behavior, 2001.

Freng, Adrienne Beth, A Comparative Analysis of Race and Gang Affiliation: is Race a Marginalizing Factor?, 2001.

Fuder, John Edwin, Training Students for Urban Ministry: An Experiential Approach, Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2001.

Furois, Michael Edward, A Qualitative Examination of Exiting a Street Gang, 2000.

Gaes, Gerald G., Walace, Susan, and Gilman, Evan, "The Influence of Prison Gang Affiliation on Violence and other Prison Misconduct," Prison Journal, 82, (3), 2002, pp. 359-385.

***Gallo, Gina, Armed and Dangerous: Memoirs of a Chicago Policewoman, New York: Forge, 2001.

Gang Injunction, [San Diego, Calif.: San Diego County], District Attorney, 2002.

Gangs in Texas, 1999., [Austin, Tex.] : Office of the Attorney General, 2000.

**Gangs in Texas, 2001: An Overview. , Austin, Tex.: Office of the Attorney General, Juvenile Crime Intervention Division, 2002.

*Garot, Robert, "Where You From!": Grounded Constructions of Gangs in an Inner-City Alternative School, 2003

This article investigates how young people in an inner-city ecology invoke the relevance of gangs by demanding, "Where you from!" Such a challenge creates a lively venue for performing identity and emotional manipulation for both the instigator who offers the challenge and the respondent. Rather than conceptualizing young people as gang members and gangs as a static group, this analysis shows how the doing of gangs is strategic and context sensitive. Such an approach provides an alternative to conceptualizing identity, and especially gang identity, not as a fixed personal characteristic but as a sensual response to a moment’s vicissitudes.

Gastrow, Peter, Triad Societies and Chinese Organised Crime in South Africa, Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies, 2001.

Gedatus, Gustav Mark, Gangs and Violence , Mankato, Minn.: LifeMatters, 2000.

Gilbertson, Douglas Lee, What Have They Told Us About Gangs?: A Content Analysis of Twentieth Century Texts on U.S. Gangs , 2002

*Glaser, Clive, Bo-Tsotsi: The Youth Gangs of Soweto, 1935-1976 , Portsmouth, NH: Oxford: Cape Town : Heinemann ; James Curry ; David Philip, 2000.

Clive Glaser uses oral, archival and ephemeral-newspaper, bureaucratic and private-source materials to recreate the street world of Johannesburg's south-western townships, latterly known as Soweto. His study of tsotsis (a non-work culture is how he describes their world) covers the years from 1935 to the eponymous student uprising of 1976. Working with field assistants skilled in the multi-variant street argot, tsotsitaal, a speech sometimes Afrikaans, Zulu, or Sotho-based, Glaser enjoyed rare access to former gang members who explained oft-ambiguous, always amorphous gang identities. Just as importantly, the author delineates popular perceptions of street gangs.

Gnanadev, Appannagari M.D.,  Expanding a Gang Tattoo Removal Program for San Bernardino County, 2001

Goodman, Roy M., Combatting the Threat of Youth Gangs, [Albany?: The Committee, 2000.

Graham, Mary Ellen, "Who's Raising Our Children: The Family or the Gang?", 2000.

*Grant, Sharon H., Van Acker, Richard., The Challenges of Gangs and Youth Violence in the Schools , Arlington, VA: Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders, 2002.

Review of the current knowledge concerning youth violence and gang behavior considers risk factors for violence and gang formation, functions served by violence and gang membership, and strategies that have been empirically validated to be either beneficial or ineffective. Following an introductory chapter, the first chapter looks at the nature of aggression, including risk factors associated with aggression and violence, the function of violence, and peer association and the development of violence and aggression. The following chapter focuses on youth gangs including reasons for gang memberships and why schools cannot combat violence and gang activity alone.

Greaves, Sonya, The Nature of Gangs and Crews: A Study of Youth Gangs and Current Trends, 2002.

Grebenik, Debi A., Leadership and Power in Black Gangster Disciple Organizations, 2000.

Green, Satasha L., Gangs in Rural Areas and Small Cities of South Texas, 2000.

*Grennan, Sean, Gangs: An international Approach, Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall, 2000.

Exceptionally complete and more informative than any other book on organized crime and gangs, this volume explores in detail the formation of gangs worldwide, the history of the gangs' criminal activities, and the future of the gangs in society--including gangs that are hardly mentioned in other volumes. Every gang is viewed historically, structurally, culturally, territorially, and economically. Readers will develop a thorough understanding of--and comparative insight into--the inner workings of gangs, both local and worldwide.

*Griffin, Joe, and Denevi, Don, Mob Nemesis: How the FBI Crippled Organized Crime, Amherst, NY : Prometheus Books, 2002.

Griffin (former FBI Special Agent in Charge) and DeNevi (criminal justice, San Francisco State University) provide a first-hand account of the FBI's efforts to put the mob out of business in Buffalo, Cleveland, Rochester, and Youngstown, and the successful convictions that resulted. In the process they describe mob intrigue, drug deals, gambling rings, hits, gangland rivalries, and a plot to infiltrate the FBI. Sixteen pages of mug shots and surveillance photos accompany the text.

**The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States, 1970-98 , [Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2001.

Gunst, Laurie, Born Fi' Dead: A Journey Through the Yardie Underworld, Edinburgh: Canongate, 2003.

Haar, B. J. ter, Ritual & Mythology of the Chinese Triads: Creating an identity / , Leiden ; Boston: Brill, 2000.

Harrington, John., Cavett, Kate, Introductory Assessment of Gang Activity and Issues in Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN : Hand in Hand, 2000.

Harter, Carrie May, Predicting Outcomes of Gang Participation and Delinquency from Social Control Variables in School and Community Programs at a High-Risk High School Campus, 2000.

*Hasaballa, Aida Y., The Social Organization of the Modern Prison, Lewiston, N.Y. : E. Mellen Press, 2001.

This work is an effort at understanding the various structural and organizational elements of the modern prison. The various elements of criminal justice policy and administrative s are synthesized with the emerging roles, ideologies and patterns of interactions within the modern correctional settings. Formal and informal systems of interaction are examined and analyzed with an emphasis on emerging trends of prison social organization. There are also important implications for criminal justice policy and research. It contains a lengthy overview of prison literature and a theoretical approach that is logical, consistent and easy to follow, including detailed and lengthy interactions with both correctional personnel and inmate population.

Heath, Linda, Kavanagh, Jack, and Thompson, S. Rae, "Perceiving Vulnerability and fear of crime: Why Fear Stays High When Crime Rates Drop," Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 33, (2), 2001, pp. 1-14.

Henkels, Brian.; Weisheit, Ralph A.,  Defining Gangs, 2001.

*Henry, David, B., Tolan, Patrick H., and Gorman, Smith, Deborah, "Longitudinal Family and Peer Group Effects on Violence and Nonviolent Delinquency," Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, (1), 2001, pp. 172-186.

Explored the longitudinal relations between family relationships and parenting characteristics, violence and nonviolent delinquency of peers, and individual delinquency and violence using data from a sample of 246 adolescent male participants in the Chicago Youth Development Study. Family and parenting characteristics were measured when participants averaged 12 years of age, peer group offending when participants averaged 14 years of age, and individual offending when participants averaged 17 years of age.

*Hernandez, Arturo, Can Education Play a Role in the Prevention of Youth Gangs in Indian Country?: One Tribe's Approach, Charleston, WV : ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, AEL, 2002.

Traditionally an urban problem, gang involvement is growing on Native American reservations. This digest examines common factors in gang development and one tribe's response through a Native-centric education and juvenile justice system. The sum of handicaps associated with gang involvement has been termed "multiple marginality," and reservation gang members have been found to be adrift, marginalized counterparts of their non-Indian peers. The Pima-Maricopa tribe has developed a unique approach, based on communal responsibility, to deal with gang youths.

**Hill, Karl G., Lui, Christina., Hawkins, J. David, Early Precursors of Gang Membership: A Study of Seattle Youth, Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2001

Homant, Robert J., and Barnes, Erick, "Work, Workplace Deviance, and Criminal Offenders: An Analysis of Project GANGMILL," Journal of Gang Research, 10, (1), 2002, pp. 1-10.

Hoover, Thomas R., [City Council Communiques: Public Safety Activities Worcester Police Department Gang Unit], Worcester, MA. : The Office, 2000

Hope, Trina L., and Damphousse, Kelly R., "Applying Self-Control Theory to Gang Membership in a Nonurban Setting," Journal of Gang Research, 9,(2), 2002, pp. 41-61.

How should society treat juvenile offenders? , San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2000.

Howell, James C., Youth Gang Programs and Strategies: Summary, Washington, D.C. : U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2000.

**Howell, James C., Lynch, James P., Youth Gangs in Schools, [Washington, D.C.] : U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2000.

*Huff, C. Ronald, Gangs in America (3rd ed.), Thousand Oaks : Sage Publications, 2002.

This popular anthology examines contemporary gangs, gang life, and law enforcement efforts to study and coordinate the communities response to them. The book contains original essays from a broad array of renowned researchers and experienced practitioners who work with gangs. A wide variety of current topics and issues are covered, including: female gangs and ganging; ethnic diversity; economic, neighborhood and school contexts of gang behavior; gun and drug relationships, and research methods used in the study of gangs.

*Hunt, Geoffrey, and Joe, Laidler, Karen, "Situations of Violence in the Lives of Girl Gang Members," Health Care for Women International, 22, 2001, pp. 363-384.

Women and violence has become a topic of increasing concern. Women's involvement in perpetrating violence, especially girl gang members, also has raised national concern. The participation of young women in gangs and gang violence has caused public consternation as they are perceived to be violating traditional notions of femininity. In spite of this increased concern and burgeoning literature, significant gaps still exist in our understanding of the role of young women in gangs, the nature and extent of female gang members' victimization, and the extent of their involvement in perpetrating violence.

Huston, Peter, Tongs, Gangs, and Triads: Chinese Crime Groups in North America , San Jose: Authors Choice Press, 2001.

Hynek, Carole, Juvenile Gangs , Madison, WI: Legislative Reference Bureau, 2000.

Illinois., Office of the Governor. Report to the Governor: Governor Ryan's Summit: Gangs, Guns, Drugs, [Springfield, Ill. : State of Illinos, 2000.

Imai, Takeyoshi, "The Hiding Wealth: Organised Crime in Japan." Journal of Financial Crime. 10, (1), 2002, pp. 63-68.

Indian Youth Gangs & Juvenile Justice: March 22-24, 2000, New Orleans, LA, Petaluma, Calif.: National Indian Justice Center, 2000.

International Gang Specialist Training Program (3rd : 2000 : Chicago, Ill.) Official Proceedings of the 3rd International Gang Specialist Training Program: National Gang Crime Research Center, Chicago, Illinois, Peotone, Ill.: The Center, 2000.

*Jackson, Robert K., McBride, Wesley D., Understanding Street Gangs, Incline Village, Nev.: Cincinnati, OH: Copperhouse Pub. Co.; Distributed by Atomic Dog Pub., 2000.

UNDERSTANDING STREET GANGS offers a unique and pioneering approach to the street and prison gang dilemma and provides both local and national perspective. This popular book is used by colleges, universities, and academies, and also for advanced officer training throughout the country. The authors are leading authorities on gang activities. No other book offers such insight or understanding into this escalating threat. It covers causative factors, family structure and profiles, socioeconomic pressures, and drugs. It also defines gangs, membership, structure and organization, communication, and measurements of gang violence, offers perspective on gang activity, and suggests possible solutions.

Jeffrey, Robert, Glasgows Hard Men: True Crime from the Files of the Herald, Evening Times and Sunday Herald, Edinburgh : Black & White Pub., 2002.

Johnson, E. J., Deuce Casper and the Baldies, Minneapolis, MN: E.J. Johnson, 2002.

Johnson, Julie., Why do People Join Gangs?, Austin : Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 2001.

*Kaplan, David E., Dubro, Alec, Yakuza: Japan's Criminal Underworld, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.

Known for their striking full-body tattoos and severed fingertips, Japan's gangsters comprise a criminal class eighty thousand strong--more than four times the size of the American Mafia. Despite their criminal nature, the yakuza are accepted by fellow Japanese to a degree guaranteed to shock most Westerners. Here is the first book to reveal the extraordinary reach of Japan's Mafia. Originally published in 1986, Yakuza was so controversial in Japan that it could not be published there for five years.

Katz, Charles, M., Maguire, Edward, R., and Roncek, Dennis, W., "The Creation of Specialized Police Gang Unit: A Micro-Level Analysis of Contingency, Social Threat and Resource Dependency Explanations," Policing an International Journal of Police Strategies and Management , 25, (3), 2002, pp. 472-506.

*Katz, Charles M., "The Establishment of a Police Gang Unit: An Examination of Organizational and Environmental Factors," Criminology, 39, (1), 2001,  pp. 37-73.

Although researchers have begun to document the programs and activities performed by police gang units, little research has examined why police gang units are created and why they have responded to local gang problems in the way they have over the past 10 years. Using a multimethodological research design, the present study examines the factors that shaped a Midwestern police department's response to its community's gang problem. The results from the present study lend support for the institutional perspective. The data suggest that the gang unit was created as a consequence of pressures placed on the police department from various powerful elements within the community and that, once created, the unit's response was largely driven by its need to achieve and maintain organizational legitimacy.

*Kavieff, Paul R., The Purple Gang: Organized Crime in Detroit, 1910-1945, New York: Barricade Books, 2000.

The Purple Gang was a loosely organized confederation of mobsters who dominated the Detroit underworld and whose tentacles reached across the country. Beginning in the Prohibition Era, the Purple Gang prevailed in distilling alcohol and running liquor from Canada, kidnapping, and labor racketeering. This is the hitherto untold story of the rise and fall of one of American's most notorious criminal groups. In an era resembling the Wild West when post World War I America groped for identity, chaos was the rule. And in Detroit's underworld, the Purple Gangsters were the rulers.

**Kennedy, David M., Braga, Anthony A., Piehl, Anne M., et. al., Reducing Gun Violence: The Boston Gun Project's Operation Ceasefire, Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, 2001.

Kephart, Timothy, The Encoding of Gang Communication: An Analysis of Graffiti Messages, 2001

Kinnes, Irvin, From Urban Street Gangs to Criminal Empires: The Changing Face of Gangs in the Western Cape, Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies, 2000.

***Klien, Malcolm w., Kerner, Hans, Jurgen, and Maxso, heryl L., et. al., The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs and Youth Groups in the U.S. and Europe, Dordrecht Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.

Knox, George W., An Introduction to Gangs, Peotone, IL: New Chicago School Press, 2000.

Knox, George W., The Vice Lords: A Gang Profile Analysis , Peotone, IL: New Chicago School Press, 2002.

***Kontos, Louis.; Brotherton, David., Gangs and Society: Alternative Perspectives, New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

*Krahe, Barbara, The Social Psychology of Aggression, Hove [England] : Philadelphia : Psychology Press ; Taylor & Francis, 2001.

The book follows the broad division of basic and applied research in the area. First, it deals with the theoretical approaches that have been taken to conceptualise, explain, measure and predict the occurrence of aggression as a particular form of social behaviour. Issues discussed include individual differences in aggressive behaviour, the role of situational factors such as alcohol in eliciting aggression and the impact of media violence on viewers' aggressive response tendencies. Second, it addresses the manifestations of aggression in different areas of life, and the concerns of applied psychologists and practitioners regarding the damaging effects of aggression on individuals, groups and societies.

Krienert, Jessie L., and Fleisher, Mark S., "Gang membership as a proxy for Social Deficiencies: A Study of Nebraska Inmates," Corrections Management Quarterly, 5, (1), 2001, pp. 47-58.

***Kynoch, Gary, "We are Fighting the World" : A History of the Marashea Ganes [sic] in South Africa, 1947-1999, 2000.

LaCarra, Roberto David, Mexican-American Gangs and the San Fernando Valley Peace Effort of William "Blinky" Rodriquez [i.e. Rodriguez] , 2001.

Laidler, Karen, Joe, and Hunt, Geoffrey, "Accomplishing Femininity Among Girls in the Gang," The British Journal of Criminology, 41, (4), 2001, pp. 656-678.

Lavigne, Yves, Hells Angels at War, New York: HarperCollins World, 2001.

Lee, Daehwan, The Evolution of Gang Culture in the Korean American Community of Los Angeles, 2002.

Leet, Duane A., Rush, George E., Smith, Anthony, Gangs, Graffiti, and Violence: A Realistic Guide to the Scope and Nature of Gangs in America, Incline Village, Nev.: Copperhouse Publishing Co., 2000.

Leija, Antonio, The Valley Unity Peace Treaty and the Reduction of Gang Violence in the San Fernando Valley, 2002.

*Li, Xiaoming, and Stanton, Bonita, "Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gang Involvement Among Urban African American Adolescents," Youth and Society, 34, (2), 2002, pp. 172-194.

Analyzed data about urban African American youth to explore whether differences in exposure to violence, resilience, and distress symptoms between gang members and nonmembers resulted from risk behaviors in which youths participated or from gang membership itself. Results indicated that gang membership itself related to increased risk and ill-effects on psychological well-being. Strong family involvement and resiliency protected against gang involvement.

Liu, Benjamin T. M., Hong Kong Triad Societies Before and After the 1997 Change-Over , Hong Kong: Net e-Pub., 2001.

Lloyd, J. D., Gangs, San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press, 2002.

López, José M., Gangs: Casualties in an Undeclared War , Dubuque, Iowa : Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co., 2002.

Low, Cheryl-Ann., Koh, Jaime., Chinese Triads: Perspectives on Histories, Identities, and Spheres of Impact , [Singapore] : Singapore History Museum, 2002.

*Luster, Tom, and Oh, Su, Min, "Correlates of Male Adolescents Carrying handguns among their Peers," Journal of Marriage and Family, 60, 2001, pp. 714-726.

Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 were used to examine factors, such as family and neighborhood environment, associated with carrying a handgun among adolescent males. As expected, results indicated males were more likely than their peers to carry handguns if they engaged in other problematic behaviors, had witnessed someone else being shot, and were involved in gangs.

Lynch, Cathy E., Prison Gangs: Can They be Successfully Controlled?, 2000.

Mansoer, Winarini, Student Involvement in Tawuran: A Social-Psychological Interpretation of Intergroup Fighting Among Male High School Students in Jakarta, [St. Lucia, Qld], 2000

Mantini, Rosemary, Subversive Dialogues: Folklore, Children's culture & the Gang, 2002

Merianos, Dorothy E., Joining the Gang: A Reaction to Strain? A Partial Test of Agnew's General Strain Theory, 2001

*Martineau, Pierre, Murray, Jean-Paul, I was a Killer for the Hells Angels: The True Story of Serge Quesnel, Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 2003.

When he was fifteen years old, Serge Quesnal started hanging out in strip bars and committing minor thefts and burglaries. He soon became known to the police. He learned more about crime when he served time, first in a detention centre, and then later in the infamous Donnacona federal penitentiary. On his release, he was ready to realize his true ambition, to become a confederate of the Hells Angels.

Martínez, Marcos, Analyzing College Fraternities and Gangs to Investigate and Compare, 2001

*Mason, Eric, The Brutal Truth: The Inside Story of a Gangland Legend, Edinburgh : Mainstream, 2001.

This is an account of a world far removed from normal daily life. It describes Mason's years in a home for delinquents, his associations with the Kray twins & John McVicar, & details his observations on the Great Train Robbery gang.

Mathis, Greg., Walker, Blair S., Inner City Miracle, New York: Ballantine Books, 2002.

*Mayeda, David, Tokiharu, and Chesney, Lind, Meda, "Talking Story with Hawaii's Youth: Confronting Violent and Sexualized Perceptions of Ethnicity and Gender," Youth and Society, 33, (1), 2001,  pp. 99-128.

Investigated how at-risk youth in Hawaii experienced their own ethnicity and gender. Data from focus groups with diverse adolescents at youth centers indicated that theoretical frameworks must incorporate unique circumstances within differing communities, such as interethnic violence, sexual exploitation, and immigration patterns.

*McCorkle, Richard C., and Miethe, Terance D., Panic: The Social Construction of the Street Gang Problem, Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2002.

Panic: The Social Construction of the Street Gang Problem deals with the "discovery" of the street gang problem in the United States during the 1980s. In these pages, authors Richard McCorkle and Terance Miethe argue that gangs are a major social threat—not only because of the increased concrete threat, but because of their impact on the world around us. The result has been increased crime, a proliferation of inefficient anti-gang policies, and the squandering of millions of taxpayer dollars.

McDowell, Jim, Godfathers: Inside Northern Ireland's Drug Racket, Dublin : Gill & Macmillan, 2001.

McIntyre, Tom, Tong, Virginia M., and Perez, Joseph F., "Cyber Lockdown: Problems inherent with the Use of Internet Technology in Correctional Education Settings," The Journal of Correctional Education, 52, (4), 2001, PP. 163-165.

*Messenger, Chris, The Godfather and American Culture: How the Corleones became "Our gang", Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002.

Chris Messenger's detailed analysis of Mario Puzo's immensely popular 1969 novel, The Godfather, and Coppola's film adaptation and subsequent sequels, insists that the Corleone family has become part of American culture. Messenger supports his position by acknowledging that the thirty million copies sold in the 1970s made it the best-selling novel of the decade, and, well over thirty years later, phrases from The Godfather have made their way into our language. Messenger suggests that "I'll make him an offer he can't refuse," "sleeps with the fishes," and "leave the gun--take the cannoli" are part of the American vernacular, the meaning behind them easily understood by people not born when the movie came out.

Miller, J. Mitchell, and Tewksbury, Richard, Extreme Methods: Innovative Approaches to Social Science Research, Boston, Mass.: Allyn and Bacon, 2001.

*Miller, Jody, Maxson, Cherl L., and Klein, Malcolm W., The Modern Gang Reader (2nd ed.), Los Angeles, Calif.: Roxbury Pub. Co, 2001.

Roxbury is pleased to announce publication of the Third Edition of THE MODERN GANG READER edited by Arlen Egley Jr., Cheryl L. Maxson, Jody Miller, and Malcolm W. Klein. Building on the foundation of previous editions, this anthology provides an updated, highly accessible introduction to the most salient contemporary issues in the study of gangs. This book emphasizes defining and understanding gangs, their prevalence, structures, and behaviors, and society's responses to them.

Miller, Jody, and Messerschmidt, James W., "Gender and Crime," Theoretical Criminology, 6, (4), 2002, pp. 433-480.

*Miller, Jody, One of the Guys: Girls, Gangs, and Gender, New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

One of the Guys: Girls, Gangs, and Gender examines the causes, nature, and meaning of female gang involvement. Miller situates the study of female gang membership in the context of current directions in feminist scholarship and research on both gangs and female criminal offenders. Unique in its approach, this book is a comparative study that examines both gang members and nongang members to provide an accurate picture of the nature of gang life. The author draws on interviews from two contrasting cities, St. Louis, Missouri and Columbus, Ohio. While both cities have relatively new gang histories, their socioeconomic conditions are notably different.

**Miller, Jody, and Decker, Scott H., "Young Women and Gang Violence: Gender, Street Offending, and Violent Victimization in Gangs," Justice Quarterly, 18, (1), 2001, pp. 115-140.

Miller, Lisa L. "Looking for Postmodernism in all the Wrong Places: Implementing a New Penpology," British Journal of Criminology, 41 (1), 2001, pp. 168-184.

Miller, Lisa L., The Politics of Community Crime Prevention: Implementing Operation Weed and Seed in Seattle, Aldershot, Hants, England ; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, Dartmouth, 2001.

Miller, Rose M.,  The Threat of Transnational Crime in East Asia, Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, 2002.

Miller, Stuart.; Moss, Geoffrey, The Biker Code: Wisdom for the Ride, London: Simon & Schuster, 2002.

**Miller, Walter B., The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970-98, Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2001.

Minnesota Gang Strike Force, [Minn.]: Minnesota Gang Strike Force, 2000.

***Miranda, Marie, Homegirls in the Public Sphere , Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003.

Miranda, Marie A., Subversive Geographies: From Representations of Girls in Gangs to Self-Presentation as Civil Subjects, 2000.

**Moore, Joan W.; Hagedorn, John, Female Gangs: a Focus on Research , Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2001.

Morales, Gabriel C., Varrio Warfare: Violence in the Latino Community, Seattle, [Wash.]: Tecolote Publishing, 2000.

Muller, Patrick Saint Francis, Study of a Gang Risk Intervention Program: a Profile of at-Risk Youth in the Public School Setting, 2001.

Moran, Nathan R., The Globalization of Russian, Colombian, and Chinese Organized Crime from 1991-2001: A Time-Series Analysis , 2002.

*Murphy, Patricia A., Gang Membership and Involvement: Student Perceptions and Prevention Impact, 2000.

The study describes the perceptions of a specific group of students toward the advantages and disadvantages of joining gangs. The research identifies the likely impact of a gang prevention program, the Gang Education and Resistance Curriculum (Tsagaris, 1996), on changing student perceptions about joining gangs. Lastly, the study examines what educators and law enforcement officials view are essential characteristics of a successful program to prevent students from joining gangs.

Murphy, William Patrick, The Effect of Supervision Programs on Street Gangs, 2000.

Myers, Lucinda., Chavez, Nelba, Gangs, Rockville, MD: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, 2000.

Newbery, Peter. Gangs in Schools: A Strategic Solution for Hong Kong, Hong Kong : Caritas Adult & Higher Education Service, 2003.

*Nowak, Barbara J., "Keeping it Better in the Bahamas: A Nation's Socioeconomic Response to Juvenile Crime," Journal of Black Studies, 31, (4), 2001, pp. 483-493.

Examines how the Bahamas, a nation that is over 85 percent of African descent, is dealing with juvenile crime, discussing: the historical and economic context of crime; the socioeconomics of juvenile crime; and the nation's socioeconomic response to delinquency. An important objective in this effort is to empower the next generation to become contributing members of a strong, economically viable nation.

Ogg, Kim, Texas Gangs: The Legal Handbook, Austin, Tex.: Texas District & County Attorneys Association, 2000.

*Orlando, Leoluca, Fighting the Mafia and Renewing Sicilian Culture, San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2001.

In May 1992, the heavily armored motorcade of Giovanni Falcone, a courageous prosecutor who had helped push the Sicilian Mafia to the verge of destruction, was hit by 300 kilograms of explosives. The bombs blew an enormous crater in the road, killing Falcone, his wife, and three of his bodyguards.

Owen, Rebecca Lynn, Ethnic Differences in Gang Homicide in Los Angeles, 2002.

*Paoli, Letizia, Illegal Drug Trade in Russia, Freiburg i. Br.: Edition Iuscrim, 2001.

In its difficult transition to democracy and a market economy, Russia has experienced a veritable boom of illegal markets, specifically the drug market. Drawing on the results of a study conducted on behalf of the United Nations, the first part of the article reconstructs the expansion of illegal drug consumption and trade in Russia since the collapse of the Soviet Union. It points, in particular, to the rapid diffusion of heroin, a substance that was virtually unknown in the former Soviet Union.

Paradis, Peter, Nasty Business: One Biker Gang's Bloody War Against the Hells Angels , Toronto: HarperCollins, 2002.

Parra, Fernando, "The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Veterano (older) Chicano Gang Members and the {dys} Functional Aspects o the Role, " Journal of Gang Research, 8, (4), 2001, pp. 13-18.

**Peterson, Dana, "Don't forget the women": A Multi-Level Analysis of Individual and Contextual Effects on Girls' and Boys' Delinquency, 2002.

Pinkerton, Carol June. Fraternities, Sororities and Gangs: A Grounded Theory Comparison, 2000

***Piquero, Alex R., and Tibbets, Stephen G., Rational Choice and Criminal Behavior: Recent Research and Future Challenges, New York: Routledge, 2002.

Poynting, Scott, Noble, Greg, and Tabar, Paul, "Middle Eastern Appearances: Ethnic Gangs, Moral Panic and Media Framing," Australian and New Zealand journal of Criminology, 34, (1), 2001, pp. 67-90.

*Prendergast, Michael, Farabee, David, and Cartier, Jerome, "Impact of In-Prison Therapeutic Community Programs on Prison Management," Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 32,(3),2001, pp. 63-78.

Presents findings of a process evaluation of the California Substance Abuse Treatment Facility. Measures from the evaluation suggest that the presence of a therapeutic community within a prison is associated with significant advantages for management of the institution-including lower rates of infractions, reduced absenteeism among correctional staff, and virtually no illicit drug use among inmates.

***Prichard, Rebecca, Yard Gal , New York: Dramatists Play Service Inc., 2001.

Project Gang-Proof: A Handbook on Street Gangs for Parents and Communities, Winnipeg : Manitoba justice, 2001.

Randolph, Norman., Erickson, Edsel L., Gangs, My Town, and the Nation: The Critical Role of Schools, Neighbors, and Law Enforcement in Community Collaboration, Holmes Beach, Fla. : Learning Publications, 2000.

***Rapp, Paglicci, Lisa A., Handbook of Violence, New York : Wiley, 2002.

**Reed, Winifred L., Decker, Scott H., Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research, Washington, D.C. (810 Seventh St., N.W., Washington, 20531): U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice, 2002.

Reiboldt, Wendy, "Adolescent Interations with Gang, Family, and Neighborhoods," Journal of Family Issues, 22, (2), 2001, pp. 211-242.

Reichel, Frederick T., Gangs in the Northern Sacramento Valley: A Learning Module for Teachers and School Administrators, 2002.

*Reisig, Michael D., "Administrative Control and Inmate Homicide," Homicide Studies, 6, (1), 2002, pp. 84-103.

Although recently found to explain forceful inmate collective action (e.g., riots),it remains unclear whether the administrative control model accounts for other forms of prison violence. Using a sample of 298 American, adult, higher custody state prisons, this study assessed the association between administrative control and inmate-on-inmate homicide. The results show that prisons experiencing conflict between the administration and frontline staff and facilities with higher proportions of the inmate population involved with prohibited groups (e.g., gangs)are significantly more likely to report homicides than facilities where official authority is exercised successfully.

*Renzetti, Claire M., "One Strike and You're out: Implications of a Federal Crime Control Policy for Battered Women," Violence Against Women, 7, (6), 2001, pp. 685-698.

In March 1996, the "One strike and you're out" initiative, a federal policy to fight crime in public housing, became official when President Clinton signed the Housing Opportunity Program Extension Act of 1996. Touted by the federal government as a tough anticrime measure to make public housing safe for law-abiding residents, the primary targets of One Strike are supposed to be gangs, drug dealers, and violent criminals. However, this article examines the potentially harmful consequences of the One Strike policy for formerly and currently battered women. These harmful consequences include making it more difficult for a battered woman to leave her abuser and putting her at risk of losing her public housing lease because of the abuser's behavior.

*Renzetti, Claire, and Goodstein, Lynne (eds.), Women, Crime, and Criminal Justice: Original Feminist Readings, Los Angeles, CA: Roxbury Pub. Co., 2001.

The book's approach affords the reader an opportunity to review alternative perspectives on women and justice - and compare them to more traditional explanations. This expands the reader's knowledge base, spurs discussions, and addresses cutting-edge topics.

Reynolds, David, and Newsham, Grant, "Managing the Mob: Techniques to Limit the Risks and Costs of Doing Business in Markets Tainted by Organized Crime," Journal of Financial Crime. 8, (4), 2001, pp. 325-331.

*Riedel, Marc., and Welsh, Wayne N., Criminal Violence: Patterns Causes, and Prevention, Los Angeles: Roxbury, 2002.

Criminal Violence: Patterns, Causes, and Prevention is the first text available that reviews the field of violence in a form that is comprehensive, compelling, and accessible to undergraduates. The book offers coverage of topics and controversies in violence, based on the most current knowledge available. Criminologists Riedel and Welsh provide the "big picture" without oversimplifying. 

Rivera, Ricardo J, Latino Gang Members' Experiences, Before, During, and After Gang Involvement , 2001.

*Robbins-Turner, Darlene., Hutcherson, Darren, Wake Up and Recognize: Life of a Gang Member,  Racine, Wis. : Kendar Pub., 2002.

Wake Up and Recognize: Life of a Gang Member - is an awareness reading/workbook for young children and parents. Through out the book, Papa Golley appears with ‘Points of Discussion’ questions for your students or children, so they can give their point of views on the gangs. Children are able to see the influence that gang members have on others, how gangs affect the schools and the community, and what role the parents can play.

Robinson, Curtis J., "Methamphetamine Use and Sale Among Gang Members: The Cross-Over Effect," Journal of Gang Research, 9, (1), 2001, pp. 39-52.

*Rodriguez, Joseph., Martínez, Rubén., Rodriguez, Luis J., East Side Stories: Gang Life in East L.A. , New York : PowerHouse Books, 2000.

Rodriguez, a freelance photographer whose work has appeared in Life, among other publications, traveled to Los Angeles in 1992 to try to understand? and convey to the public? the complexities behind the screaming headlines of gangland killings. His photographs of life in East-Side barrios as well as South Central neighborhoods often feature the expected guns and small groups of young men posing for the camera. But just as often the reader sees fathers with their children and other family groups, illuminating the innumerable lives that surround the gang experience.

*Rodriguez, Luis J., Hearts and Hands: Creating Community in Violent Times, New York: Seven Stories Press, 2001.

A longtime peacemaker with gangs in Los Angeles and Chicago, Luis J. Rodriguez prescribes healing through community building. He warns against further marginalization of people already on the edge of society, and points the way to nonviolent opportunities for youth.

Rodriguez, Luis J., Hearts and Hands: Making Peace in Violent Times , New York: London: Seven Stories ; Turnaround, 2003.

Roleff, Tamara L., What Encourages Gang Behavior?, San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press, 2002

Rush, George E., Organized Crime, Drugs & Street Gangs: The Connection, San Clemente, Calif. : LawTech Publishing Co., 2001.

Ryter, Loren, Youth, Gangs, and the State in Indonesia, 2002.

***Sanchez, Reymundo, My Bloody Life: The Making of a Latin King, London: Vision, 2003.

Sanders, William S., "Breadren: Exploring the Group Context of Young Offenders in an inner City English Borough," International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice. 26, (1), 2002, pp. 101-113.

Sarnecki, Jerzy, Delinquent Networks: Youth Co- Deffending in Stockholm, Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Sasone, Geraldine Moon, The Perceived Influences of Gang Involvement Voiced by Former and Current Latino Gang Members, 2001.

Sayasane, Phanhmaly, Correlates of Gang Membership: Southeast Asian Gang and Nongang Youth, 2000.

Scott, Andy, DeVillers, Paul, Combating Organized Crime , [Ottawa]: The Sub-Committee, 2000

Scott, Gregory, "Broken Windows Behind Bars: Eradicating Prison Gangs Through Ecological Hardening and Symbol Cleansing," Corrections Management Quarterly, 5, (1), 2001, pp. 23-36.

Sharpe, Elizabeth Gail, Epidemiology of Gangs: Level of Association of Risk Factors for Membership, 2001.

*Sharpe, Elizabeth, G., "Negotiating with Gang Members: Understanding the Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Membership," Journal of Police Crisis Negotiations, 2, (2), 2002, pp. 35-48.

The presence of gang members and their involvement in crime has been documented and debated by researchers and practitioners for years. In 1998, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention reported there were 28,700 gangs and 780,200 gang members in the United States (National Institute of Justice, 2000). These findings represent a 7%decrease in the number of gangs and an 8% decrease in the number of gang members since 1996. These decreases, however, are not recognized by society, as the presence of gangs is portrayed by the media with visual images and graphic descriptions of drug sales, turf wars, drive by shootings and drug-related murders.

*Sheehy, Robert D., and Rosario, Efrain A., "Connecting Drug Paraphernalia to drug Gangs," FBI law Enforcement Bulletin, 72, (2), 2003, pp. 1-6.Straka, Richard, "The violence of Hmong Gangs and the Crime of Rape," FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 72, (2), 2003, pp. 12-16.

In April 1997, investigators found 30 businesses in the city of Baltimore engaged in the sale of drug paraphernalia to area gangs. With the exception of just a few of the businesses, the sale of paraphernalia accounted for nearly all of the revenue received by the shops. A review of law enforcement records revealed that police already knew about the stores and, in fact, had raided most of the stores, some on more than one occasion. Nearly all of the prior raids failed to result in meaningful prosecutions, with most of these cases being stetted or nolle prossed. Those that authorities pursued resulted in a fine and probation before judgment.

*Shelden, Randall G., Tracy, Sharon K., Brown, William B., Youth Gangs in American Society, Belmont, CA : Wadsworth Thomson Learning, 2001.

This comprehensive survey of the literature on gangs and gang activities in America includes theoretical perspectives on why gangs exist, gang typologies, descriptions of gang activities, and various intervention strategies for dealing with gangs.

Sher, Julian, Marsden, William, The Road to Hell : How the Biker Gangs are Conquering Canada, Toronto: A.A. Knopf Canada, 2003.

***Sieberg, Katri K., Criminal Dilemmas: Understanding and Preventing Crime, Berlin ; New York: Springer, 2001.

Sirpal, Suman, Kakar, "Familial Criminality, Familial Drug Use, and Gang Membership: Youth Criminality, Drug Use, and Gang Membership-- What are the Connections?," Journal of Gang Research, 9, (2), 2002, pp. 11-22.

Small, Mark A.; Limber, Susan P.; Kimbrough-Melton, Robin L. J., Gangs in South Carolina: An Exploratory Study: Executive Summary, [Clemson, S.C.]: Clemson University, Institute on Family and Neighborhood Life, 2000.

Smith, Diana Tobbe, Circumstantial Evidence: A Christmas Drama, Greenville, S.C. : BJU Press, 2002

Spitzer, Eliot, The Promise and Power of Neighborhood Watch: Building Stronger Neighborhoods Through Preparation, Prevention and Intervention : Attorney General's 4th Annual Neighborhood Watch Conference, Thursday, October 17, 2002, Albany. , [Albany, NY : State of New York Office of the Attorney General, 2002.

**Starbuck, David., Howell, James C., Lindquist, Donna J., Hybrid and Other Modern Gangs , Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2001.

Stark, Evan, Everything You Need to Know About Street Gangs , New York: Rosen Pub. Group, 2000.

Stein, Nan, Tolman, Deborah L., and Porche, Mischelle V., "Gender Safety: Anew Concept for Safer and more Equitable School," Journal of School Violence, 1, (2), 2002, pp. 35-50.

Steinberg, Jonny, Crime Wave: The South African Underworld and its foes, Johannesburg : Witwatersrand University Press, 2001.

Stewart, Gail, Gangs, San Diego: KidHaven Press, 2002.

Stinchcomb, Jeanne B., "Promising (and not so Promising) Gang Prevention and Intervention Strategies: A Comprehesive Literature Review," Journal of Gang Research, 10, (1), 2002, pp. 27-46.

*Stone, Michael, Gangbusters: How a Street-Tough, Elite Homicide Unit Took Down New York's Most Dangerous Gang , New York: Doubleday, 2000.

Gangbusters is a riveting narrative about the secretive, elite Homicide Investigation Unit and its successful investigation and prosecution of the notorious upper Manhattan Wild Cowboys, one of the bloodiest and most violent drug gangs in New York's long history. For two years, veteran reporter Michael Stone was granted exclusive access to the inner workings of HIU, its brilliant and iconoclastic chief, Walter Arsenault, and the seasoned, street-smart detectives and prosecutors who helped to put the Wild Cowboys behind bars. The book opens with the shocking and senseless execution of a Tarrytown college boy on the West Side Highway.

Stone, Sandra S., Contemporary Gang Issues: An Inside View,  Peotone, IL: New Chicago School Press, 2000.

Strosnider, Kim, "Anti-Gang Ordinances after City of Chicago vs. Morales: The Intersection of Race, Vagueness Doctrine, and Equal Protection in the...," American Criminal Law Review, 39, (1), 2002, pp. 101-146.

Struckman, Johnson, Cindy, and Struckman, Johnson, David, "Sexual Coercion Reported by Women in Three Midwest Prisons," Journal of Sex Research, 39, (3), 2002, pp. 217-227.

Sullivan, Randall, LAbyrinth : Corruption and vice in the L.A.P.D.: The Truth Behind the Murders of Tupac Shakur and Biggie Smalls, Edinburgh: Canongate, 2002.

*Sweatt, Lisa, Harding, Carol G., and Knight, Lynn, Laura, "Talking about the Silent Fear: Adolescents' Experiences ofViolence in an Urban High-Rise Community," Adolescence, 37, (145), 2002, pp. 109-120.

Children in America today are experiencing and being exposed to a greater degree of violence than past generations. Homicide is the second leading cause of death for persons 15 to 24 years of age and is the leading cause of death for African Americans (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1997; Christoffel, 1990). The intensity of violence, particularly in cities across the country, has caused some researchers to compare urban environments to those of war zones around the world (Garbarino, Kostelny, & Dubrow, 1991b). It is only in recent years that researchers and community service providers have begun to address the social and emotional impact of community violence on children and adolescents from their own perspective.

*Tartakovsky, Eugene, and Mirsky, Julia, "Bullying Gangs Among Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union in Israel: A Psycho-Culturally Determined Group Defense," Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 16, (3), 2001, pp. 247-265.

This article describes and analyzes the phenomenon of bullying gangs, which emerged in groups of adolescents who immigrated to Israel from the former Soviet Union (FSU) without their parents. Such gangs typically consisted of a number of youth organized hierarchically, who attempted to control other members of the group. They created a group structure and a defined set of rules that regulated the interactions between group members and those with the external environment. Bullying, physical violence, alcohol, drug consumption, and petty theft were among the behaviors typical to such gangs. It is suggested that the gangs be viewed as a defense mechanism employed in an attempt to regain control in an unfamiliar environment and in the absence of a reliable parental figure.

Taylor, Terrance J., Turner, K. B., and Esbensen, Finn, Aage, et. al., "Coppin' an Attitude Differences Among Juveniles Toward Police," Journal of Criminal Justice, 29, (4), 2001, pp. 295-305.

Taylor, Terrance James, The Dynamics of Social Control During the Adolescent Life-Course, 2002.

Texas., Legislature., Senate., Committee on Criminal Justice, Interim report, 77th Legislature: Charge Eleven, Austin, Tex. : The Committee, 2000.

Thompson, Michele, Youth and Gangs, 2000.

***Thornberry, Terence P., Gangs and Delinquency in Developmental Perspective, Cambridge, UK; New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2003

Thornton, Phil, Casuals, Lytham: Milo, 2003.

Thrasher, Frederic Milton, Knox, George W., The Gang : A Study of 1,313 Gangs in Chicago , Peotone, Ill.: New Chicago School Press, 2000.

Tiet, Quyen Q., and Huizinga, David, "Dimensions of the Construct of Resilience and Adaption Among Inner-City Youth," Journal of Adolescent Research, 17, (3), 2002, pp. 260-276.

***Tita, George, Reducing Gun Violence: Results From an Intervention in East Los Angeles , Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2003.

**Totten, Mark, "Legal Ethical and Clinical Implications of Doing Field Work with Youth Gang Members Who Engage in Serious Violence," Journal of Gang Research, 8, (4), 2001, pp. 35-56.

*Tovares, Raúl Damacio, Manufacturing the Gang: Mexican American Youth Gangs on Local Television News, Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Coverage of Mexican-American youth gangs has been a staple of local television news in the United States for decades, and its form and content have come to embody many journalistic cliches: the "rising tide" of violence, the spread of drug addiction, the alienated minority youth. But as this bold new study argues, these stories contain gross exaggerations that lead to the reinforcement of stereotypes about Mexican-American young people and the Mexican-American community in general. Indeed, the police and community leaders greatly influence the content of this coverage by deciding what information to make available to the news media, while reporters select certain sources and ignore others, thus slanting the story even further.

*Tordoff, Shaun,  City psychos: From the Monte Carlo Mob to the Silver Cod Squad: Four Decades of Terrace Terror, Ramsbottom: Milo, 2002.

es of Terrace Terror Tracing the genesis of the Hull City football hooligan mob from the formative'60s to the present day, with personal recollections and interviews with former gang members, Shuan Torduff, a former member of the Hull City football hooligan gang, recounts the infamous Battle of Dock Street, the Rugby Wars that split the city, the era of the notorious Hull City Psychos, the trips on Mad Eddie's Battle Wagon, and the resurgence of soccer violence at the football club in the 1990s.

Troutman, Andrew, "Ever Get the Feeling You're Been Cheated?", Hickory, NC: The Author, 2003.

The Truth About Street Gangs, [Chicago, Ill.]: Gang Prevention Inc., 2001

*Tsunokai, Glenn T., and Kposowa, Augustine, "Asian Gangs in the United States: The Current State of the Research Literature," Crime Law and Social Change, 37, (1), 2002, pp. 37-50.

Since the late 1980s, criminologists have been interestedin analyzing Asian gangs. Despite the rather sharp increasein books and articles published on the subject in the1990s, there appears to exist no consensus on the nature and etiologyof Asian gangs. This paper describes the current state ofresearch on Asian gangs and assesses whether or not thereis a dominant criminological theory on their cause. Itcompares and contrasts African American and Asian gangs,and closes with research and policy recommendations.

*Tuohy, John W., When Capone's Mob Murdered Roger Touhy: The Strange Case of Touhy, Jake the Barber and the Kidnapping that Never Happened, Fort Lee, N.J.: Barricade Books, 2001.

Fort Lee, New Jersey: Barricade Books. 2001. F First Edition. H Hard Cover. Very Good. Black boards with silver lettering on spine. Binding is tight. Pages are clean. Minimal shelfwear. DJ shows minor edgewear. Colors bright. The story of Roger Touhy's turbulent life as a career criminal whose underworld deeds were as darkly sensational as Capone's or Luciano's.

Unis, Joan E., Gang Affiliation in Adolescence and Attachment in Infancy, 2001.

U.S. Department of health and Human Services, Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General, [Rockville, Md.]: Washington, DC: Dept. of Health and Human Services, U.S. Public Health Service; For sale by the U.S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs., 2001.

Valdez, Al., Gangs: A Guide to Understanding Street Gangs, San Clemente, Calif.: Law Tech Pub. Co., 2000.

Valentine, Bill, Gangs and their tattoos: Identifying Gangbangers on the Street and in Prison , Boulder, Colo.: Paladin Press, 2000.

In this book, Bill Valentine, author of Gang Intelligence Manual, shares the latest intelligence on the predominant street and prison gangs and other disruptive groups, with particular emphasis on their identifying tattoos. Supplementing the text are scores of detailed illustrations by Correctional Officer Robert Schober that replicate some of the most common tattoos worn by members of each of the groups discussed. This groundbreaking work makes a substantial amount of previously classified information available to the general public for the first time. In addition to presenting the latest intel on white, black, Hispanic and Asian gangs, it also includes new information on groups such as the White Afrikaner Resistance Movement and the Russian Mafia, which add to the mounting challenge faced by those laboring to hold the line against the menace posed by gangs, hate groups and organized crime.

*Vandebosch, Heidi, "Criminal Involvement and Media Use," Deviant Behavior, 22, (6), 2001, pp. 541-570.

When researchers investigate the relationships between media behavior and criminal behavior, they tend to focus on the links between the content preferences of offenders and the types of crime they have committed. Offenders, however, also differ with respect to their degree of criminal involvement. Although some authors indicate that the consumption of socially disvalued media contents may have a symbolic value for people with a high degree of criminal involvement, or suggest that media may provide them with useful information, the link between this criminality dimension and media use has seldom been thoroughly studied. This article describes the results of a qualitative and quantitative study into the media use of prisoners in five Flemish penitentiaries. It illustrates that the variable degree of subjective criminal involvement is a particularly strong predictor of media uses, preferences, and interests among confined offenders.

**Varano, Sean, Patrick, and Cancino, Jeffrey, Michael, "An Empirical Analysis of Deviant Homicides in Chicago," Homicide Studies, 5, (1), 2001, pp. 5-29.

V.E.G.A., [Springfield, Ill.]: Illinois State Police, 2003

***Veno, Arthur., Gannon, Ed. The Brotherhoods: Inside the Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs, Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin, 2002.

***Vigil, James Diego, A Rainbow of Gangs: Street Cultures in the Mega-City, Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002.

Virginia., Dept. of Criminal Justice Services, Report on Survey of Youth Gang Activity in Virginia: Report of the Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia, Richmond : Commonwealth of Virginia, 2000.

Walker, Barnes, Chanequa J., and Mason, Craig A., "Ethnic Differences in the efect of Parenting on Gang Involvement and Gang Delinquency: A Longitudinal, Hierarchical Linear Modeling Perspective," Child Development, 72, (6), 2001, pp. 1814-1831.

Walker, Barnes, Chanequa, J., and Mason, Craig, A., "Perceptions of Risk Factors for Female Gang InvolvementAmong African American and Hispanic Women," Youth and Society, 32, (3), 2001, pp. 303-336.

Walsh, Joni L, What Causes Gang Involvement?, 2000

Weinberger, Karlheinz, Binder, Ulrich., Mattioli, Pietro. KarlHeinz Weinberger: Photos, 1954-1995, Zurich : Museum für Gestaltung, Andreas Züst Verlag, 2000.

Weisel, Deborah, Lamm, Contemporary Gangs: An Organized Analysis, New York: LFB Scholarly Pub., 2002.

**Wells, L. Edward, and Welsheit, Ralph A. "Gang Problems in Nonmetropolitan Areas: A Longitudinal Assessment," Justice Quarterly, 18, (4), 2001, pp. 791-823.

***Westmarland, Louise, Gender and Policing: Sex, Power and Police Culture, Cullompton: Willan, 2001.

Whitbeck, Les B., Hoyt, Dan R., and Chen-Xiaojin, "Predictors of Gang Involvement among American Indian Adolescents," Journal of Gang Research, 10, (1), 2002, pp.11-26.

Wilkinson, Katheryn Lynn, Stories of Survival in the Wake of Violence and Abuse on the Cape Flats, 2002.

Wilkinson, Nick, Male Gangs in Springfield, Ohio: A Research/Narrative Project, 2002.

Williams, Jenny, and Sickles, Robin C., "An Analysis of the Crime as Work Model: Evidence from the 1958 Philadephia Birth Cohort Study," Journal of Human Resources, 47, (3), 2002, pp. 479-509.

Williams, Roy, Fallout , London: Methuen, 2003.

Willoughby, Jack., Sanz, Ken., Francisco, Pete, Distorted Mirror: Southeast Asian Criminality in the United States, Clearwater, Fla.: S, M & C Sciences, 2001

*Winters, Clyde Ahmad, Motivations Behind Inmate Participation in Correctional Education Programs, 2000.

A study used attribution theory to explain the self-efficacy of 70 prison inmates (35 were gang members) participating in correctional education. Many gang members had low efficacy and expectations for educational attainment.

Wish, Eric D., "The Relationship Between Gang and Other Group Involvement and the Use of Illicit Drugs: Findings from Maryland Offender Population Urinalysis," Journal of Gang Research, 8, (3), 2001, pp. 1-11.

Wolff, Lisa, Gangs, San Diego: Lucent Books, 2000.

Wong, Kwok-kit, Triad Involvement in Interior Decoration Business in Hong Kong, Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong, 2000.

Woods-Littlejohn, Brandi, An Assessment of Gang Activity in Elk City, Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK: Oklahoma Criminal Justice Resource Center, 2000.

**Wood, Jane, and Adler, Joanna, "Gang Activity in English Prisons: The Staff Perspective," Psychology Crime and Law, 7, (2), 2001, pp. 167-192.

*Wooden Wayne S., Randy, Blazak, Renegade Kids, Suburban Outlaws: From Youth Culture to Delinquency (2nd ed.), Australia ; Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub., 2001.

Offering a unique look at subcategories of delinquent youth, primarily suburban youth, Wooden/Blazak use qualitative research strategies to explore how basically good kids can move from the fringes of society to delinquent activities. Accordingly, this text investigates everything from the harmless life of the mall rat to the volatile and dangerous world of skinheads, Satanists, and tagger crews, as well as the culture in the California Youth Authority. This new edition includes more information about girls and different races, as well as the latest information about group typologies. The author quotes from the popular media to highlight his points and make conceptual material relevant to students.

***Woodiwiss, Michael, Organized Crime and American Power, Toronto ; Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 2001.

Worth, Richard., Gangs and Crime, Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2002.

Wyrick, Phelan A., Organizational Features as Facilitators of Youth Gang Aggression and Antisocial Behavior, 2002.

**Wyrick, Phelan A., Vietnamese Youth Gang Involvement, [Washington, DC]: U.S. Dept. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, 2000.

Xiong, Lee Pao, Asian Gangs, 2000.

Xiong, Mai, A Descriptive Study of Hmong Youth Gang Members in the California Central Valley: A Dissertation ... , 2002.

Yang, Kee, Hmong Parents' Perception on the Hmong Parenting Practices, 2002.

**Yearwood, Douglas L., and  Hayes, Richard A., Perceptions of Youth Crime and Youth Gangs: A Statewide Systemic Investigation, Raleigh, N.C.: N.C. Criminal Justice Analysis Center, Governor's Crime Commission, 2000.

Yearwood, Douglas, and Hayes, Richard, "A Statewide Assessment of Gangs in the Public Schools: Origins, Membership and Criminal Activities," Journal of Gang Research, 8, (4), 2001, pp. 1-12.

*Yoshinaga, Masayuki, Bosozoku: Japanese Bikers, London: Trolley, 2002.

The Japanese term "Bosozoku" refers to a specific Japanese phenomenon, the teengage bike gangs based in the urban centres of Japan that gather every weekend in the major metropolises, such as Osaka and Tokyo, for mass rallies of bikers in their thousands. First formed in the 1950s, when the Hell's Angels in the US reached their apogee with Marlon Brando in "The Wild Ones", the Bosozoku have a tame equivalent in the Mods and Rockers that fought pitched battles on Brighton Beach in Britain in the 1960s. They are also considered in Japan to be the first rung on the ladder for would-be members of the Yakuza (the Japanese equivalent of the Mafia). This text reveals the intimate secrets of Japanese biker gangs, including female biker gangs, alongside studio portraits of individual members with their customized bikes, and the mass rallies and road wars that have made the Bosozoku subculture such a world-wide underground phenomenon.

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