Into The Abyss:
A Personal Journey into the World of Street Gangs

by Mike Carlie, Ph.D.        
Michael K. Carlie
Continually updated.

~ Table of Contents ~
Home | Foreword | Preface | Orientation

What I Learned | Conclusions
End Note |
| Appendix
Site Map / Contents
| New Research

Up-To-Date Gang-Related News


The cooperation and assistance of many people helped lay the foundation for Into the Abyss. The interview subjects represented a variety of professions and included:

bulletlaw enforcement officers and commanders,
bulletpolice gang unit members,
bulletintelligence officers,
bulletnational law enforcement trainers,
bulletschool teachers,
bulletschool principals,
bulletdirectors of school security,
bulletfaith community leaders,
bulletdirectors and other personnel in community-based anti-violence and delinquency treatment programs
bulletprison administrators,
bulletheads of prison security,
bulletgang members (in prison and on the street),
bulletparents of gang members,
bulletcounselors and therapists who have worked with gang members,
bulletprobation and parole officers who have had gang members on their caseload and who offer treatment programs for them,
bulletUnited States attorneys,
bulletFederal law enforcement agents and corrections personnel,
bulletsocial researchers who have studied gangs,
bulletand city/county prosecutors.

The names of the interview subjects are found below. Without their cooperation and insights Into the Abyss could not have been written. Other people were also interviewed, but their interviews were less formal. They included business owners, long-time community residents, neighborhood youths, postal workers (who know a lot about what's happening in their neighborhoods), and people found relaxing in city parks, sitting on benches at their local mall and in other public places. All were targets for my questions about the gang situation in their community and all were forthcoming with one insight or another.

I also want to thank Southwest Missouri State University and the citizens of the State of Missouri for their support in the initial stages of my research. Thank you, too, to Lieutenant Mark Webb (Springfield [MO] Police Department, retired) and to Drs. Juris Zarins and Jeff Nash for their support and insights, many of which have found their way into the body of this book. Thanks, too, to Sharon Walter, Mark Webb, and Dr. Lloyd Young who read early drafts of the book and offered valuable and constructive criticisms.

A special note of thanks is due Chief Lynn S. Rowe, Springfield Police Department (Springfield, Missouri), for his assistance in obtaining permission to ride with and interview police in many of the cities included in this study. The chiefs or sheriffs in each of the following cities are also to be thanked for their willingness and interest in having me participate in their gang officer's- or gang unit's activities.   

In the United States
bulletAurora, Colorado
bulletCharlotte, North Carolina
bulletColorado Springs, Colorado
bulletGainesville, Florida
bulletJoplin, Missouri
bulletKansas City, Missouri
bulletLaramie, Wyoming
bulletLas Vegas, Nevada
bulletLos Angeles (City), California
bulletLos Angeles (County), California
bulletManatee County, Florida
bulletRochester, New York
bulletRock Springs, Wyoming
bulletSan Francisco, California
bulletSarasota, Florida
bulletSeattle, Washington
bulletSilverton, Colorado
bulletSouthern UTE Reservation, Colorado
bulletSpringfield, Missouri
bulletSt. Louis, Missouri
bulletWichita, Kansas

Outside the United States

bulletAmsterdam, Netherlands
bulletCalgary, Alberta, Canada
bulletEdmonton, Alberta, Canada
bulletLondon, England
bulletVancouver, British Columbia, Canada

In the remainder of Into the Abyss the names of nearly all 157 interview subjects identified below have been changed to honor an agreement made with them at the time they were interviewed. As a result of being offered anonymity, I believe the insights they shared were quite candid. Any similarity between a fictitious name to the name, character, or history of any person living or dead is entirely coincidental and unintentional. The names of gang members interviewed for this study have been withheld to protect their identity.

The names of cities have either been omitted or, when used, the names of streets, businesses, parks, and other sites have been changed so no association could be made back to the interview subjects.

John Armilio Tony Gorup John Radtke
Ramona Arroyo Ricardo Graham Mike Roberts
Sylena Bagley Chuck Grammont Theresa Robinson
Patrician Bailey John Groves Moses Robinson
David Barnes Glenn Grymes Joyce Rosenfeld
Darrel Battle Guillermo A. Guerrero Kevin Routh
Randal Beebe Kathy Hagerty David P. Rush
Steve Broadhead Steve Hamai Cynthia Rushefsky
Larry Brotherton Robert Harris Roger Rusness
Judy Brunner Carl R. Hill Sulaiman Salaam
Elizabeth Buehner Gary Hill Brian Saupe
Reed Buente Kathleen A. Hill Meenakshi K. Saxena
Dana Burch Clarence Hines Paul Schuurmans
Ed Bures Devon Hoing Robert M. Scronce
Chris Catanzaro Kevin Holly David W. Scruggs
Chris Cesena Reginald Holmes Mark H. 
Dae Chang Joan Horn Jamie Sterneck Sentnor
Brian Cherry Patricia Hunter Robert Sevaaetasi
Darrell F. Christman Pieter Immel Brett W. Shields
Frank Clark Gordon Jolly Kent Shipley
Steve Clemens Dawn Keller Georgina Slack
Darryl Clodt Susan Kennedy Terry Sloan
John Colwell Jim Kessler Hal Smith
John Coney Tom Klekamp Meagan Snelson
David Cook Phil Komoroski Ralph Snowden
Anthony Cooper Darren Lane Patrisha Spencer
Gloria Creed Willaim E. Larkin David Starbuck
Patricia Darragh Fred Liedke Gayla Steenberger
Scott H. Decker John Lopez John Stone
Richard A. Dima C. Riccardo Lucas Ann E. Stork
Leman Dobbins Tejindra Malhi David Stretch
Colin Downton John Marcum Paul Takemoto
Bart Driessen Joyce Massey Tom Tavernier
Louis Duran Jeff McCroskey Michele Timberlake-Berry
Jim Dyment Jim McCulloch G. P. Tomlinson
Jim Edwards Toby McDaniel Andy Tooke
Susie Edwards Scott McKelvey Frank van Gemert
Paul Elmer Joel McNelly Rick Veach
Lisa Euell Roy L. Mitchell Gary Wallace
Juan Fabrega Acie L. Moore Carol Ward
Jim Farrell Beth Moran Heather Ware
Valorie J. Fechtel J. Mouton Renita Waters
Joe Fitzmaurice Dottie Mullikin Mark Webb
Larry Flynt Raul Murguia Mike Wells
Daniel J. Foley Calvin Neal Chris Welsh
John Foster Maureen Nolan Jerome West
Terry Foulkes Thomas A. Nunemaker John Wheeler
Mark Freeman Steve J. Parker Catherine White
Michael W. Game Dan Patterson David White
Angela Giberti Terry Perry Kevin Whitfield
Garland Goodwin Fred Phillips Kathleen Wiley
Shannon K. Gorman Marc Plourde Yolanda Williams
  Vern Pugh Rick Wymer


2002 Michael K. Carlie
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the author and copyright holder - Michael K. Carlie.